14-Lower Extremity articulations

14-Lower Extremity articulations - Lower Extremity...

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Lower Extremity articulations
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Hip Articulation Coxal or iliofemoral (ball and socket) Movements:
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Hip Major bursae Trochanteric Gluteofemoral Ischial http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2109. html
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Hip Major bursae Trochanteric Gluteofemoral Ischial
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Hip Ligaments Ligamentum Capitis Iliofemoral Ischiofemoral Pubofemoral Acetabular labrum of the Hip
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Pelvis Posterior articulation: Sacroiliac Anterior articulation: Symphysis Movement: a little anterioposterior rotation
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Pelvis Ligaments Inguinal Sacrospinous Sacrotuberous Dorsal sacroiliac Iliolumbar
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sacrospinous 6 Inguinal iliolumbar iliolumbar Obturator membrane 17 Iliofemoral 15
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sacrospinous Dorsal sacroiliac sacrotuberous Ischiofemoral 23
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Inguinal 10 Iliolumbar 20 Iliofemoral 23 Iliofemoral 24 Obturator membrane Pubofemoral 26 symphysis
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Inguinal 10 Lig. Capitis 15 Obturator membrane 16 Transverse acetabular 9
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Sacroiliac joint Two joints right and left—between the sacrum and the iliac bones Form the key of the arch between the two pelvic bones; with the symphysis pubis they help transfer the weight from the spine to the lower limbs and provide elasticity to the pelvic ring; support to pelvic organs/structures
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Sacroiliac joint Has all typical features of synovial joint except that the articular cartilage on the ilium is fibrocartilage while the cartilage covering the sacrum is hyaline (thicker) Joint is part synovial and part syndesmosis Size, shape and roughness of articular surfaces vary greatly among individuals
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Sacroiliac joint SI joint and symphysis pubis have no muscles that control their movements directly They are influenced by the action of the muscles that act upon the lumbar spine and hip Normal joint movement is often over simplified
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Sacroiliac joint Movement of sacrum on the ilium is usually referred to as nutation (flexion) and counter-nutation (extension) The total mean rotation is around 4 deg and the total translation is ~ 3 mm. Movement of the ilium on the sacrum is referred to as torsion SI joint motion decreases throughout life
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Knee Tibiofemoral (Modified hinge) Patellofemoral (gliding) Largest and most complex of the synovial joints Relies on ligaments to strengthen and support the knee
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Knee Movements Flexion, extension, and with a flexed knee: internal and external rotation Normal ROM 140˚ No rotation in extended knee At 20˚ of flexion, tibia starts to glide and rotation is possible Maximum rotation at 90 deg of flexion
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Knee Movements Passive medial rotation: 20-30 deg Passive lateral rotation: 30-40 deg Screw home mechanism : conjunct rotation of external rotation of the tibia during terminal extension (20 deg)
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Knee Bursae Anterior Suprapatellar
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14-Lower Extremity articulations - Lower Extremity...

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