GIS_NOTES_4_midterm

GIS_NOTES_4_midterm - Today’s Class Outline •...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Class Outline • Introduction –Why Does GIS Matter? –What Is GIS? –Brief History of GIS –GIS Software Architecture –GIS Software Packages –ArcGIS 9 Overview Why Does GIS Matter? • Spatial is Special! (Geographic is Great!) – Geographic – specific to the earth • surface and near-surface – Spatial • Often is synonymous w/ Geographic but can also apply to another planet/body (Geospatial) • But can also refer to space, not just that at the surface! The term geospatial refers to any space, not only the space of the earth's surface. FALSE!! Geospatial can apply to another planet/body AND spatial can be geospacial OR any space NIMA (national intelligence mapping agency – was lgst GIS users in world – was rename geospatial intelligence agency after 9/11 Why Does GIS Matter? • Almost everything happens somewhere. – Knowing where something happens is critically important! • Something in common – The fact that nearly all things have a component provides us with the unique opportunity to tie together data from disparate disciplines/fields ex. Hurricane – need to prepare, look at flood zoning, evacuation, power plant locations etc . GIS is employed to MONITOR and MANAGE this Geographic Information • Geographic Information elements: – link a PLACE (LOCATION) and often a TIME, with – some PROPERTY of that place – AKA ‘Spatial Data’ • GEOMETRY (geometric components of spatial data like coordinants) • ATTRIBUTE What are the three bases for classifying geographic problems? Scale/Geographic Detail Time Scale Intent/Purpose Normative uses of GIS – focus on design Positive uses – advance science Data - Numbers, text, or symbols in their raw form. Information - Selected, organized, and prepared for a particular purpose. Knowledge - Becomes so only after it has been absorbed and understood. Wisdom - A decision or conclusion that is arrived at after weighing all the facts and with some understanding of the likely consequences. Form (how earth looks) varies geographically, and the Earth's surface looks dramatically different in different places. Dynamic processes, (how earth works) on the other hand, can be very general. TRUE GIS is able to combine the general with the specific. TRUE Which of the following best describes GIS? Answer A container of maps in digital form. A computerized tool for solving geographic problems. A spatial decision support system. A mechanized inventory of geographically distributed features and facilities. A tool for revealing what is otherwise invisible in geographic information. A tool for performing operations on geographic data that are too tedious or expensive or inaccurate if performed by hand....
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GIS_NOTES_4_midterm - Today’s Class Outline •...

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