worksheet 6 key - ProblemSet6 Dr.Sparks,CH301,Fall2010...

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Problem Set 6 Dr. Sparks, CH 301, Fall 2010 Naming of compounds and figuring out formula of compounds is considered prerequisite knowledge for this  course.  I’ve posted documents and practice sheets on this, and there is further practice below.  Section 2.9 in  your text covers this topic. 1. Describe the three types of bonds in your own words: ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent.  What  types of elements are involved?  What else distinguishes one type from another? Ionic bonds typically occur between a metallic and non-metallic atom with different electronegativity, where the  metallic atom typically donates one electron (or more) to the non-metal forming a cation and an anion.  A polar  covalent bond forms between two non-metals which share electrons between them, but have somewhat  different electronegativities. One atom will pull the electrons more towards its nucleus and create a dipole  moment in the molecule due to uneven electron distribution. A nonpolar covalent bond is between two non- metals that have the same (or very similar) electronegativities so the molecule has no dipole moment. 2. For each set of elements, list if the compound formed is likely to be covalent or ionic: a. Li and Cl Ionic b. Na and P Ionic c. H and O Covalent d. S and Cl Covalent e. Cr and O Ionic 3. For each set of elements (or elements and polyatomic ions), give: The formula for the compound formed from the two elements The name of the compound formed Which element loses electrons The total number of electrons transferred in the formation of one formula unit The dot structure for each ion (Don’t worry about these for the polyatomic ions.) *Dot structures shown below* a. Ca and O CaO, calcium oxide, calcium loses 2 electrons  b. Na and S Na 2 S, sodium sulfide, each sodium atom gives up 1 electron for a total of 2 c. Mg and F MgF 2 , magnesium fluoride, magnesium gives up two electrons, one to each fluoride atom d. Al and O Al 2 O 3 , aluminum oxide, each aluminum gives away 3 electrons for a total of 6 e. Mg and phosphate ion Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , magnesium phosphate, each magnesium gives away 2 electrons, for a total of 6.
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