Psychology 418-practice midterm 1

Psychology 418-practice midterm 1 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Name________________________________________________ Psychology 418__Monfils Practice Midterm Exam 1 1. What is an advantage of a case study? a. A case study allows many subjects to be studies at a time. b. The collected data of a case study can be generalized to describe other individuals or a larger group. c. The collected data of a case study is very detailed and thorough. d. The collected data of a case study is easiest to obtain and doesn't take a long time. 2. What is NOT one of the goals of basic psychological research? a. Describe behavior b. Predict behavior c. Explain behavior d. Give advice on behavior 3. When designing a test, one doesn’t need to look for: a) reliability b) well defined variables c) obvious outcome d) appropriate scales of measurement Name________________________________________________ 4. A politician releases a commercial that features his slogan, “Innovation makes a better nation.” It is repeated so frequently on television so many times that people eventually believe it to be true. What source of knowledge is this? a. Knowledge via authority b. Knowledge via intuition c. Knowledge via tenacity d. Both a and c 5. Which of the following is not a way to increase reliability of an experiment? a) b) c) d) e) Test and then retest subjects in the exact same manner Test and retest with an alternate form of the test Have two researchers recording the same data (interrater) Use subjects that are also researchers and can help influence your data Correlate scores on one half of the measure with scores on the other half through split‐half reliability coefficients. 6. An experimenter had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavor ice cream from a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream by rating the taste on a 1‐5 scale. The independent variable in this experiment was the a. Ice cream ratings b. Gender of the participant c. Color of the carton d. Flavor of the ice cream Name________________________________________________ 7. Which type of scale is needed for a doctor if the doctor asks a patient “On a scale of 1‐10, how much does your head hurt” after an operation. a. Nominal b. Ordinal c. Interval d. Ratio 8. Scale in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties. These scales have the characteristic of identity but lack the other properties. a. Ordinal b. Ratio c. Nominal d. Interval 9. Consider the following survey question: “Most Americans consider cell phones to be a necessity. Do you agree? This is an example of a: a. leading question b. loaded question c. rating scale question d. double‐barreled question Name________________________________________________ 10. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of telephone surveys? a. Telephone surveys have a low response rate b. Increased use of cell phones make it difficult to effectively contact people c. Survey range is limited because long distance calls are costly d. Participants are more likely to give socially desirable responses than true responses 11. Which of the following is NOT an example of a discrete variable? a. Political party affiliation b. Gender c. Age d. Ethnicity 12. A researcher wants to conduct and experiment on penguins and wants to know if the experiment is ecologically valid: What is ecological validity? e. The extent to which research can be applied to help the environment f. The extent to which research can help save trees and penguins g. The extent to which research can be generalized to real‐life situations h. The extent to which research can prevent human errors in the experiment Name________________________________________________ 13. Which of the following is NOT a threat to general experimental designs. a) Instrumentation b) Selection c) Mortality d) Jennifer Lopez 14. What type of validity ensures that an experiment accurately predicts the behavior of a population? a. b. c. d. 15. Criterion validity Face validity Content validity Construct validity Ordinal scales: a. Use numbers to distinguish among objects b. Have equal intervals between objects c. Are used to place objects in order on a continuum d. Are like interval scales except they have a true zero point Name________________________________________________ 16. A study is conducted to test the effect of a new medication on heart rate during exercise. Each person in the experimental group is instructed to take the medication and then run a mile as quickly as possible. When they finish, their pulse is taken. This process is repeated every day at the same time for one week. The control group has the same amount of people as the experimental group. Each person in the control group is instructed to do everything in the same way as the experimental group, with the exception of taking the medication. This process is repeated every day at the same time for one week. Throughout the course of the week, six people in the control group become ill and are unable to participate in the study. Based on this, which is a possible internal threat to the validity of the study? a. Instrumental b. Maturation c. Mortality d. Place 17. Debriefing involves: a. explaining the purpose of a study to subjects after completion of data collection b. having the participants read and sign an informed consent before the study begins c. lying to the participants about the true nature of the study d. non of the above 18. An IRB reviews proposals to ensure: a. that the proposal is methodologically sound b. that enough participants are being used c. that ethical standards are met d. that there will be no legal ramifications from the study Name________________________________________________ 19. Which of the following is true? a. Naturalistic observation decreases the ecological validity of a study b. Naturalistic observation involves observing humans or other animals in their natural setting c. Laboratory observation increases the ecological validity of a study d. All of the above 20. After repeatedly jumping on Oprah’s sofa, Tom Cruise decided to conduct a survey of viewer opinion of his crazy antics. He decided to conduct his survey by using every tenth name on a list of alphabetized Oprah viewers. The type of sampling Tom is using is: a. representative cluster sampling b. cluster sampling c. stratified random sampling d. random sampling Essay questions: 21. What are the disadvantages and advantages of open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended and Likert Rating Scale questions? Name________________________________________________ 22. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? 23. Compare and contrast basic research and applied research, then describe the symbiotic relationship between them. 24. What is one of the fundamental reasons that empiricism is not enough for scientists? Name________________________________________________ 25. Explain why relevant variables are not desirable in an experiment. 26. Name three different types of reliability and give an explanation of each. 27. In what type of situation might an investigator argue that deception is necessary? How can informed consent be obtained in such a situation? 28. True or False: A measure of temperature in Fahrenheit is a ratio scale. 29. True or False: The key ingredient to any experiment is a relevant variable that manipulates a dependent variable in a study. ...
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