Psychology 418—comprehensive final

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Unformatted text preview: Name________________________________________________ Psychology 418__Monfils Comprehensive Final Exam 1. In an experimental study on the effects of a drug on cake eating speed, cake eating speed would be: a) b) c) d) A nuisance variable An independent variable A dependent variable A delicious variable 2. When we do a hypothesis test, we need to be able to answer the question of whether our sample would typically be found in a particular population or not. Thus, we need to have some kind of standard that tells us what kinds of means are normally found in a particular population. That standard is called _______________. a. the sampling distribution b. the standard error c. the population mean d. the effect size 3. An experimenter had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavor ice cream from a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream by rating the taste on a 1‐5 scale. The independent variable in this experiment was the a. Ice cream ratings b. Gender of the participant c. Color of the carton d. Flavor of the ice cream Name________________________________________________ 4. Scale in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties. These scales have the characteristic of identity but lack the other properties. a. Ordinal b. Ratio c. Nominal d. Interval 5. Consider the following survey question: “Most Americans consider cell phones to be a necessity. Do you agree? This is an example of a: a. leading question b. loaded question c. rating scale question d. double‐barreled question 6. An IRB reviews research proposals to ensure: a. That ethical standards are met b. That the proposal is methodologically sound c. That enough participants are being used d. That there will be no legal ramifications from the study Name________________________________________________ 7. A researcher wants to conduct and experiment on penguins and wants to know if the experiment is ecologically valid: What is ecological validity? a. The extent to which research can be applied to help the environment b. The extent to which research can help save trees and penguins c. The extent to which research can be generalized to real‐life situations d. The extent to which research can prevent human errors in the experiment 8. Which of the following is a threat specific to pre‐post experimental designs. a) Instrumentation b) Maturation c) Mortality d) Jennifer Lopez 9. A normal distribution must ______________. a. have outliers b. be symmetric c. be positively skewed d. be negatively skewed 10. A negatively skewed distribution ____________. a. has a tail pointing to the left b. has a tail pointing to the right c. is symmetric d. is also positively skewed Name________________________________________________ 12. Which of the measures of central tendency can be defined as the 50th percentile? a. the mean b. the median c. the mode d. the trimmed mean 12. Which of the measures of central tendency would we NOT want to use when our data has a lot of outliers? a. the mean b. the median c. the mode d. the trimmed mean 13. Our alpha level indicates ________. a. our Type 2 error rate b. our Type 1 error rate c. our effect size d. our degrees of freedom 14. Which of the following factors will NOT make it easier to find statistical significance? a. A bigger sample size b. A one‐tailed test c. Means that are closer together d. A higher alpha level (e.g., .10 instead of .05) Name________________________________________________ 15. An important feature of the Central Limit Theorem is ____________________. a. The distribution approaches normal as n, the sample size, increases. b. The distribution approaches normal as n, the sample size, decreases. c. With a small sample size, we can more easily estimate the population variance d. tobtained will always be equal to tcritical with a normal distribution 16. When designing a test, one doesn’t need to look for: a) reliability b) well defined variables c) obvious outcome d) appropriate scales of measurement 17. The denominator of the t formulas consists of _______________. a. the standard deviation of the sampling distribution b. the standard error c. the mean of the sampling distribution d. the degrees of freedom 18 Which of the following represents the strongest correlation between two variables? a. r = .00 b. r = .50 c. r = ‐.30 d. r = ‐.65 Name________________________________________________ 19 A negative correlation between the speed of responding to a test and the accuracy on the test tells us that: a. the slowest responders are always the most accurate. b. slower responses are associated with more accuracy. c. the fastest responders are always the most accurate. d. more speed causes less accuracy. 20 If high scores on X are associated with low scores on Y, the slope is going to be: a. positive b. negative c. zero d. there is no way to tell 21 If the correlation between X and Y is negative, the slope of the regression equation must be a. negative b. positive c. non‐significant d. It could be either a or b 22 The equation for the regression line is: a. = ax + b b. = bx ‐ a c. = bx2 + a d. = bx + a Name________________________________________________ 23 In the regression equation, the y‐intercept is represented by: a. a b. b c. X d. Y 24. ______________________ involves making claims that appear to be scientific, but that actually violate the criteria of science. a. The principle of falsifiability b. Systemic empiricism c. Being a skeptic d. Pseudoscience 25 In the regression equation, the slope is represented by: a. a b. b c. X d. Y 26. Our alpha level indicates ________. e. our Type 2 error rate f. our Type 1 error rate g. our effect size h. our degrees of freedom Name________________________________________________ 27. An important feature of the Central Limit Theorem is ____________________. 25. The distribution approaches normal as n, the sample size, increases. 26. The distribution approaches normal as n, the sample size, decreases. 27. With a small sample size, we can more easily estimate the population variance 28. tobtained will always be equal to tcritical with a normal distribution Essay questions: 28. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? 29. Explain why relevant (nuisance) variables are not desirable in an experiment. Name________________________________________________ 30. Compare and contrast external and internal validity. 31. Describe the relationship between Measurement Error, Observed Score, and True Score. Name________________________________________________ 32. NY state math test scores for fourth‐grade children have a mean of μ = 70 and a standard deviation of σ = 10. a. What percentage of 4th graders score better than 55 on the test? Draw a sketch as well as showing the calculation. b. If one of the students has a z‐score of 1.70, what score did she get on the math test? 33 Several years ago the mean and standard deviation on the GRE for all people taking the exam were 489 and 126, respectively. What percentage of students would you expect to have a score of 600 or less? Draw a sketch and show the calculation. Name________________________________________________ 34. I gave out a questionnaire on work motivation levels to the employees of Socks ‘R’ Us. This questionnaire is known to have a population mean of 14 with a population standard deviation of 4. I want to identify the lowest 25% and the highest 25% of motivation scores so I can interview them about their stress levels. What are the raw scores that place probable limits on the middle 50% of the distribution? Draw a sketch and show the calculation. 35. Assume that the mean height for adult women is 65 inches and that the standard deviation is 3 inches. a. What is the z‐score for a woman who is 60 inches tall? b. How tall is a woman whose z‐score for height is z = .90? Name________________________________________________ 36. Below are the grades that Jose received on his PSY 1 and SOC 1 exams. On which exam did Jose do better, relative to the other students? Draw a sketch with both of Jose’s scores and show your calculations. X μ σ PSY 1 93 85 3.8 SOC 1 85 67 7.2 Name________________________________________________ 37. A researcher has noticed that people who sleep less tend to be poorly equipped to cope with stress. She conducts a study to examine the relationship between hours of sleep and coping skills. A subset of her sample appears below. Hours of Sleep/Night Coping Skills Test Score (Higher scores = better coping) 3 7 7 4 8 M = 5.8 SD = 2.17 4 6 8 5 9 M = 6.4 SD = 2.07 Using the 4 steps of hypothesis testing and labeling each step clearly, conduct a correlation analysis. (On the test I’ll give you formulas and table of critical values). Name________________________________________________ 38. A researcher wanted to determine whether there was any difference in the stress levels of people who worked in different jobs. She compared the stress levels of people in three different jobs: professors, middle school teachers, and daycare workers. Higher scores on the stress test indicate greater stress levels. a. Using the 4 step of hypothesis testing, conduct an ANOVA to determine whether the three groups differed significantly in terms of their amount stress. Be sure to include a source table and show all work. b. If necessary, conduct multiple comparisons and write a conclusion. Show all work! Professors 10 11 7 6 8 14 11 Middle School Teachers 9 11 5 9 8 7 12 Daycare Workers 1 5 4 3 2 6 7 n1= 7 n2=7 n3=7 T1=67 T2=61 T3=28 SS1=45.72 SS2=33.48 SS3=28 X̄1=9.6 X̄2=8.7 X̄3=4 Name________________________________________________ 39. Name 3 types of developmental design. Provide a brief definition for each. 40. From the ANOVA table below, please calculate the F statistic for main effects and interaction. Source DF SS MS F Factor A 1 18 Factor B 1 98 A*B 1 50 Error 28 36 Total 31 202 Name________________________________________________ 41. Fill in the missing values in the following table, assuming that the study contained three groups with 8 participants each (k=3, n=8). Source SS df MS F Between Groups 14 2.4 Within Groups Total 42. Fill in the missing values in the following table, assuming that the study contained four groups with 7 participants each (k=4, n=7). Source SS df MS F Between Groups Within Groups 3 Total 108.9 Name________________________________________________ 43. Please draw bar graphs from a 2*2 factorial design displaying the following: i. Main effect of Lesion (no interaction) ii. Main effect of Gender (no interaction) iii. Interaction only (no main effect of Lesion or Gender) iv. Interaction + Main effect of Factor Gender For each, please write one sentence describing the displayed results. Name________________________________________________ 44. Dr. Nellie wants to know if gum chewing is associated with jaw pain. She does a study and gets the following SPSS output. Correlations piecesofgum piecesofgum Pearson Correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N jawpain Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N jawpain -.378 .282 10 10 -.378 1 .282 10 10 a. What should Dr. Nellie conclude about the relationship between gum chewing and jaw pain? b. How does Dr. Nellie know if the relationship is statistically significant or not (and the presence/absence of the * is not sufficient evidence for her!) c. If Dr. Nellie was going to go the old‐fashioned route and compute this correlation by hand, how would she know if her correlation was statistically significant? d. What is the Type 1 error rate in this study? Is this acceptable or not? e. What does it mean if we make a Type 1 error? Explain it using the specific variables in this study. Name________________________________________________ 45. A researcher has noticed that people who sleep less tend to be poorly equipped to cope with stress. She conducts a study to examine the relationship between hours of sleep and coping skills. A subset of her sample appears below. Hours of Sleep/Night Coping Skills Test Score (Higher scores = better coping) 3 7 7 4 8 M = 5.8 SD = 2.17 4 6 8 5 9 M = 6.4 SD = 2.07 Using the 4 steps of hypothesis testing and labeling each step clearly, conduct a correlation analysis. (On the test I’ll give you formulas and table of critical values). Name________________________________________________ 46. A researcher wanted to investigate whether the job satisfaction scores of a sample of professional chocolate tasters was significantly different from the average job satisfaction score in the general population. She did a one‐sample t‐test comparing her sample mean of 75.25 to the population mean of 70 and got the following SPSS output. T-Test a. Can the researcher conclude that professional chocolate tasters have significantly different job satisfaction scores than the general population? (yes/no)_______________ b. How do you know if the difference is statistically significant or not? _________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ c. What is the probability of a Type I error in this study? ______________ d. If the researcher’s laptop power cord had caught on fire and she had to do hand calculations instead of using SPSS, how would she have determined if the difference is statistically significant? ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ e. If the researcher wanted to make it easier to find statistical significance in her study, what are 3 things she could do? ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Name________________________________________________ 47. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of this set of scores. Be sure to show your work! (You may use the table provided to show your work if you wish.) 5 4 3 4 6 Mean = ...
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