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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 418—Practice Questions Thinking like a scientist There are many areas of psychological research. Please compare and explain the following two areas: Development and Psychobiology. (Essay Format) What is the definition of “Tenacity (dogma)”? (Multiple Choice) A. Ideas are precisely stated, and logical rules are applied to arrive at a logical conclusion. B. Stubbornly clinging to a belief that something is true, despite evidence to the contrary. C. Involves gaining knowledge through objective observation. D. Acquiring “knowledge” based on subjective feelings. Please list the following “Sources of Knowledge” in order from the LEAST reliable to the MOST reliable: Empiricism, Authority, Science, Rationalism, Tenacity, Superstition and Intuition. A research group wants to test a new acne medicine and its effectiveness on people. An ad was made to gather volunteers for the study, and after receiving 20 replies the group arrived at the lab to receive the medicine. They were instructed to come back after one month, using the medication once a day at any time they choose. The group would take a survey and their evaluation on the effectiveness of the medication upon returning and interpret the results. Why would this experiment be ineffective and how can it be improved? A student conducts an experiment to test how many times a person has to blink after a puff of air is blown from an air pump in order for it to return to normal. Which of these is true: A) The control group is the people that don’t blink. B) A negative correlation will occur with this study. C) The study is a naturalistic observation. D) The independent variable is the amount of air that is blown with the pump. True or False: Aristotle was the first rationalist, gaining knowledge by observing and collecting facts. Compare and contrast basic and applied research, and give an example of each. The __________________ method of research is a descriptive method in which an in‐depth study of one or more individuals is conducted. a. Laboratory b. Case Study c. Naturalistic d. Survey You have just conducted an experiment that confirmed your hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between calorie intake per day and BMI. The correct way to state your results is: a. “Therefore, calorie intake per day causes BMI.” b. “Therefore, I accept the proposed hypothesis, and people with high BMIs consume more calories than people with low BMIs.” c. “Therefore, I fail to reject the proposed hypothesis, and there is a positive correlation between calorie intake per day and BMI.” d. “Therefore, I reject the proposed hypothesis.” When you present research to the general public so that it can be either observed, replicated, criticized, &/or tested, you are providing: a. Empirically Solvable Problems b. Principle of Falsifiability c. Publicly Verifiable Knowledge d. Systematic Empiricism What are the goals of a psychologist/scientist of psychology & how do they achieve these goals? Why is Empiricism not the most reliable source of knowledge? What are the three goals of science and expand on one of them? What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? Define three sources of knowledge. Compare and contrast basic research and applied research, then describe the symbiotic relationship between them. A politician releases a commercial that features his slogan, “Innovation makes a better nation.” It is repeated so frequently on television so many times that people eventually believe it to be true. What source of knowledge is this? a. Knowledge via authority b. Knowledge via intuition c. Knowledge via tenacity d. Both a and c Is a hypothesis the same as a theory? Why or why not? (short answer) A person disregards Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution because of his religious beliefs that lead him to believe that when God created the earth, he created it as we see it now. This would be an example of what type of knowledge? True or False: Research done on the effectiveness of one hair shampoo over another would be considered basic research. List the ways of gaining knowledge in the order of increasing credibility: a. Science, Empiricism, Authority, Tenacity, Rationalism, Superstition b. Superstition, Authority, Tenacity, Rationalism, Empiricism, Science c. Superstition, Authority, Rationalism, Science, Empiricism, Tenacity d. Science, Empiricism, Superstition, Tenacity, Rationalism, Authority e. Superstition, Tenacity, Authority, Science, Rationalism, Empiricism Choose the correct definition of the descriptive method. a. Using the observational, case study, or survey method to describe a certain population. b. Using the correlational or quasi‐experimental method to find and predict the relationship between two or more variables. c. Using a controlled laboratory environment to determine cause and effect relationships, isolating two or more variables and using controls. List and explain the three steps of the scientific approach to knowledge discussed in class. What is an advantage of a case study? A. A case study allows many subjects to be studies at a time. B. The collected data of a case study can be generalized to describe other individuals or a larger group. C. The collected data of a case study is very detailed and thorough. D. The collected data of a case study is easiest to obtain and doesn't take a long time. Read the following sentence and explain why it is correct or incorrect: "Once a scientist has tested his/her hypothesis multiple times and the collected data consistently supports it, the scientist concludes that the hypothesis is true and accepts it.” Fill in the blank: The group of people who participate in study are called the _______, while all the people about whom a study is meant to generalize is called the ____________. What is one of the fundamental reasons that empiricism is not enough for scientists? What type of research method would a developmental psychologist most likely use to describe behavior and why? In the following experiment, identify the independent and the dependent variables and explain why each is that way. In a recent nutritional article it was said that eating certain foods before sleep can cause strange dreams. Researchers conducted an overnight study to test this idea and see if there was any correlation to this suggestion. Subjects were brought in and fed the foods in question, they were then monitored by machines as they slept to measure brain activity. The study showed that the subjects who ate the foods had higher levels of brain activity than those who did not. Are the foods the independent or dependent variables? The brain activity? True or False: Superstition and intuition are known to be the least reliable sources of knowledge. Multiple choice: What is NOT one of the goals of basic psychological research? a. Describe behavior b. Predict behavior c. Explain behavior d. Give advice on behavior Short Answer: What are some disadvantages of the case study method? Some advantages? Define basic and applied research and explain how they are interconnected in the realm of scientific study. Variables, measurement scales, reliability and validity Define operational definitions, and explain why they are important in experiments. Nominal scales assign numbers to the categories of objects and/or individuals, which means that they can be analyzed mathematically. True or False? Explain. Why is the operational definition important when measuring or studying abstract concepts like aggression, depression and anxiety? Reliability is important when determining if the measure you are using is effective and accurate. There are several types of test that determine how reliable the measure is, the test/retest method is used often, how does this test work and what are possible errors with this test? Temperature is what type of measurement scale? a. Ordinal b. Interval c. Ratio d. Nominal Explain and give an example of what a Discrete and Continuous variable are in an experiment. Define what reliability is and why it is important in a research study or experiment. TRUE OR FALSE: Operational Definitions are used to define solutions in the experiment that help the research study operate effectively. You want to run an observational study on child aggression during recess. Before you do so, you create this list of aggressive behaviors: • Shoving • Punching • Kicking • Hitting • Slapping • Tagging • Pushing • Biting • Throwing projectiles at one another These behaviors describe: a. Discrete variables b. Nuisance variables c. Operational definition d. Levels of variation At the end of each semester, the Psychology Department gives out a survey to assess student satisfaction with the course. The information is then complied and sorted by the department, which in turn is given as a reference for future students interested in the course. The survey utilizes a Likert scale to determine satisfaction with the professor and the material taught. This is an example of what scale of measurement? a. Nominal scale b. Ordinal scale c. Interval scale d. Ratio scale Describe discrete and continuous variables. Provide an example of each Ordinal scales: a. Use numbers to distinguish among objects b. Have equal intervals between objects c. Are used to place objects in order on a continuum d. Are like interval scales except they have a true zero point In an experiment in which a lab rat’s speed of response to stimuli is manipulated by a dosage of drugs, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable? What is a disadvantage to creating more levels (therefore more accurate explanations) on an independent variable? In Delphia, Antarctica, evil scientists were trying to create a population of super penguins to help them take over the world. To do so, they create an experiment to study the effects of certain supplements on penguin growth. To feed these penguins, they breed fish for the penguins to eat so as to control the food quality as best as possible. Before they feed the penguins, they put the supplement in the fish and separate three groups of penguins. The first group receives fish with no supplement added. The next group receives a fish with a growth hormone and the final group of penguins receives a supplement full of a radioactive material the scientists develop. After a year of the trial however, the experiment goes terribly wrong when the penguins receiving the radioactive supplement become too powerful to hold (not so infinitely cute) and bust out of their cages, destroying the town and escaping into the ocean ( they were last seen in the Gulf of Mexico headed toward Texas.) Before the experiment went terribly wrong, what were the independent and dependent variables and was there any flaw in the scientist’s experimental design. Scientists are surveying the mile time of twenty‐five year‐old married men after a terrible mishap with a rogue population of mutant penguins they created. The results are irrelevant for the purposes of this question, but what categories do the variables fall under in their survey? Compare and contrast the different scales of measurements Discuss the various ways to test for reliability When designing a test, one doesn’t need to look for a) reliability b) well defined variables c) obvious outcome d) appropriate scales of measurement What is the difference between an interval scale and a ratio scale? Variables that have a limited number of values are ___________ variables? a. Independent b. Continuous c. Discrete d. Dependent Explain why relevant variables are not desirable in an experiment. Which of the following is not a way to increase reliability of an experiment? a) Test and then retest subjects in the exact same manner b) Test and retest with an alternate form of the test c) Have two researchers recording the same data (interrator) d) Use subjects that are also researchers and can help influence your data e) Correlate scores on one half of the measure with scores on the other half through split‐half reliability coefficients. A ________ variable can only cover a small amount of values, which can include sex, marital status, hair color, etc. Which of the following most accurately describes a continuous variable? a. The variable that is being manipulated b. A variable that can take on any value between the highest and lowest points on a scale c. The variable that is being measured d. A variable that can take on only a small number of values e. Something with two or more values Define interrater reliability, then provide one reason why it is important. How can interrater reliability be tested? True or False: As the number of levels of an independent variable increase, the cost usually increases? Which of the following constitutes as an ordinal scale? A. Class rank B. Temperature C. Height D. Weight What is an example of a continuous variable? A. Distance B. Gender C. Marital status D. Race An experimenter had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavor ice cream from a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream by rating the taste on a 1‐5 scale. The independent variable in this experiment was the A. Ice cream ratings B. Gender of the participant C. Color of the carton D. Flavor of the ice cream In scales of measurement, which is an example of a Nominal Scale? A. Temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius) B. Weight C. Ethnicity D. Class rank True or False. Content validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument appears valid on its surface. What is the difference between discrete variables and continuous variables? What are the three types of measures for dependent variables? Which type of scale is needed for a doctor if the doctor asks a patient “On a scale of 1‐10, how much does your head hurt” after an operation. A. Nominal B. Ordinal C. Interval D. Ratio A student is conducting an experiment where he wants to test how fast a mouse runs after being given a certain medication. He wants to control a certain type of variable such as the time of day and temperature of the lab room when conducting this experiment. These variables are an example of A Discrete B Dependant C Independent D Relevant True or False: If a student takes a test and then retakes a similar test a week later and his scores have a large variance, this test has poor validity. Which of the following is NOT an example of a discrete variable? a. Political party affiliation b. Gender c. Age d. Ethnicity True or False: A test can be reliable and not valid, but if it is valid, it is by default reliable. (t/f) An interval scale of measurement places equal intervals between objects, and has a true zero point. A study is being conducted which examines whether or not alumni of a particular high school are successful in college. Please give three possible operational definitions for this variable. A team of researchers is examining the longevity of different types of succulent plants and want to label each of the individual plants they are testing in their study. What scale of measurement should they use and why? A scientist wants to examine the effects of a gluten‐free diet on children’s behavior. What properties of measurement does this variable have? Scale in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties. These scales have the characteristic of identity but lack the other properties. a. Ordinal b. Ratio c. Nominal d. Interval What are some advantages and disadvantages of the test and re‐test method of reliability. How is reliability calculated? The speed of a rat is calculated after giving it a drug. What kind of variable is it? A. Discrete and continuous. B. Independent and discrete. C. Dependent and Continuous. D. Discrete and dependent. Why does the number of levels of the independent variable matter? True or False: The key ingredient to any experiment is a relevant variable that manipulates a dependent variable in a study. A scientist is conducting an experiment involving the effects of Tylenol PM on the number of hours a person sleeps per night. Which of the following would NOT be a relevant variable? a. Number of hours a person sleeps per night b. Amount of alcohol consumed c. Bedtime d. Amount of caffeine consumed that day Which scale of measurement uses numbers to distinguish among objects? a. Ordinal scale b. Interval scale c. Nominal scale d. Ratio scale Sex is an example of a __________________ variable. a. Independent b. Dependent c. Continuous d. Discrete Essay: Name three different types of reliability and give an explanation of each Multiple Choice: Scenario: A study is being conducted in order to see which of the two sleeping pills, Lunesta or AmbeSleep, promotes longer periods of sleep. Which of the following would be considered the relevant variable in the study? A. The average amount of sleep group A receives on Lunesta. B. The Amount of sleep each individual person received in the night before C. The average amount of sleep group B receives on AmbeSleep D. The average amount of sleep group C receives without taking a pill. Fill in the blank and give an example: Variables that can take only a small number of values . Explain why something can be reliable but not valid. Explain why if something is valid, it is reliable by default. A test is administered to determine a correlation between gender and intelligence. Upon completing the test, the participants’ scores are examined and given rankings to examine which gender performed better. This is an example of what kind of measurement scale? a. Interval Scale b. Ordinal Scale c. Nominal Scale d. Ratio Scale The researcher is measuring the speed of runners around a race track. Instead of measuring the speed he ranks each of the 5 runners in order from fastest to slowest. What type scale of measurement is the researcher using for this data? A researcher wants to measure the effect of noise on a student’s ability to retain material while studying. In order to do this he exposes students to 3 different noise levels (Loud, mild, and none) while students read 10 definitions. After 30 minutes the students are given a test to see how well the retained the material they had just studied. What is the independent and dependent variable? And what type of measurement scale is used? T/F: A researcher is interested in weight loss in dogs during a 3 mile jog. The weight loss measurement in this case would be a discrete variable. What do psychologists need to consider when coming up with a measurement tool for experiments? a. Appropriate scales of measurement b. Reliability & validity c. Well defined variables d. All of the above Briefly define relevant variables and give some examples. Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable? a. Height b. Gender c. Favorite Soda d. Hair Color First, define what a nuisance variable is. Then, give an example of one involving a study of the relationship between sleep and good grades in college students. The observed score of some test is 20, while the true score of the same test is 15. What is the measurement error of this test? How can the observed score be closer to the true score. A test measuring personality is administered; what might be the advantages and disadvantages to applying an alternate form reliability test? Why is it important to have an operational definition of a variable? True or False: A measure of temperature in Fahrenheit is a ratio scale. What are the pros and cons of retesting a subject to determine reliability. ...
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- Spring '10