2003-Graphite-MagicMouse-Inexpensive6DOF - MagicMouse: an...

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MagicMouse: an Inexpensive 6-Degree-of-Freedom Mouse Eric Woods HIT Lab NZ eric.woods@hitlabnz.org Paul Mason Lincoln University, New Zealand masonp3@lincoln.ac.nz Mark Billinghurst HIT Lab NZ mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org Abstract An inexpensive computer input device was developed that allows the user to operate within both 2D and 3D environments by simply moving and rotating their fist. Position and rotation around the X, Y and Z-axes are supported, allowing full six degree of freedom input. This is achieved by having the user wear a glove, to which is attached a square marker. Translation and rotation of the hand is tracked by a camera attached to the computer, using the ARToolKit software library. Extraction, calibration, normalisation and mapping of the data converts hand motion into meaningful operations within 2D and 3D environments. Four input scenarios are described, showing that the mapping of the position and rotation data to 2D or 3D operations depends heavily on the desired task. Keywords: Input Device, six degrees of freedom, camera, 2D, 3D 1 Introduction With the constant increase in availability and performance of 3D graphics cards, there comes a parallel need to be able to intuitively perform operations in 3D environments such as navigation, and control. These operations benefit from the ability to translate along and rotate about the X, Y and Z axes, defined here as Xpos, Ypos and Zpos, and Xrot, Yrot and Zrot respectively. Previous research has shown that manipulation operations are most effective with the ability to operate in six degrees of freedom (DOF) simultaneously (WARE 1990). Three-dimensional input devices are available in many forms, but generally they are either limited or very expensive, or both. The keyboard can be used to navigate in three dimensions, but it is not designed for this, so it lacks both intuitive and analogue control. Joysticks are the cheapest dedicated tools available, and can be analogue; however, they only offer more than 3 DOF by adding "hat" buttons (mini joysticks) and sliders, which are not always very intuitive. A variety of ultrasound, magnetic, mechanical and radio frequency devices can be attached to a hand to track it, but most only determine position, require the user to be tethered to the machine and are expensive. This paper offers a cheap, intuitive, 6 DOF alternative using a black cardboard square, a standard USB video camera and some computer vision software (ARTOOLKIT 2002). 2 The MagicMouse The MagicMouse has two key software components: ARToolKit which generates a transformation matrix representing the hand; and functions that extract Xpos, Ypos, Zpos, Xrot, Yrot and Zrot from the matrix, normalise them to range from –1 to 1 (using calibration data) and map them to a variety of operations. ARToolKit is a free, open-source C software library that uses
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2003-Graphite-MagicMouse-Inexpensive6DOF - MagicMouse: an...

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