Ucd_encyclopedia_chapter

Ucd_encyclopedia_chapter - DRAFT: User-Centered Design 1...

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DRAFT: User-Centered Design 1 Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D., Preece, J. (2004) User-Centered Design. In Bainbridge, W. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. ( in press ) User-Centered Design Chadia Abras 1 , Diane Maloney-Krichmar 2 , Jenny Preece 3 1. Introduction and History The design of everyday objects is not always intuitive and at times it leaves the user frustrated and unable to complete a simple task. How many of us have bought a VCR that we have struggled to used and missed recording our favorite programs because we misunderstood the instructions or had to put up with the clock blinking 12:00 because we didn’t know how to stop it? Do we have to put up with designs like these? Isn’t it possible to design systems that are more usable? ‘User-centered design’ (UCD) is a broad term to describe design processes in which end-users influence how a design takes shape. It is both a broad philosophy and variety of methods. There is a spectrum of ways in which users are involved in UCD but the important concept is that users are involved one way or another. For example, some types of UCD consult users about their needs and involve them at specific times during the design process; typically during requirements gathering and usability testing. At the opposite end of the spectrum there are UCD methods in which users have a deep impact on the design by being involved as partners with designers throughout the design process. The term ‘user-centered design’ originated in Donald Norman’s research laboratory at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) in the 1980s and became widely used after the publication of a co-authored book entitled: User-Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction (Norman & Draper, 1986). Norman built further on the UCD concept in his seminal book The Psychology Of Everyday Things ( POET ) (Norman, 1988). In 1 Chadia Abras, Gaucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2 Diane Maloney-Krichmar, Bowie State University, Maryland, USA.
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DRAFT: User-Centered Design 2 Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D., Preece, J. (2004) User-Centered Design. In Bainbridge, W. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. ( in press ) POET he recognizes the needs and the interests of the user and focuses on the usability of the design. He offers four basic suggestions on how a design should be: Make it easy to determine what actions are possible at any moment. Make things visible, including the conceptual model of the system, the alternative actions, and the results of actions. Make it easy to evaluate the current state of the system.
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Ucd_encyclopedia_chapter - DRAFT: User-Centered Design 1...

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