Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Notes

Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Notes - CARDIOVASCULAR...

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1 Unit 6 Cardiovascular Physiology CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM A. COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM: – Blood; Heart; Blood vessels B. FUNCTIONS: – Transport both the “good” and the “bad” stuff Good stuff – oxygen, nutrients, chemical messengers, enzymes Bad stuff - carbon dioxide, metabolic wastes – Interacts with other systems C. BLOOD VESSELS: – Size decreases away from heart – Use: Arteries carry oxygenated blood; Veins carry deoxygenated blood – Exceptions - Pulmonary Vein and Artery CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Cont.) D. CORONARY BLOOD SUPPLY: – Blood to cardiac tissues (Myocardium) – Different from blood that goes through heart chambers – Highest capillary concentration/unit tissue weight – Cardiac muscles – very limited capacity for anaerobic respiration – Most researched blood vessels in the human body E. CIRCULATORY CIRCUITS: 1. Pulmonary – run by right ventricle; low pressure; less blood 2. Systemic – run by left ventricle; high pressure; more blood CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Cont.) F. BLOOD FLOW: (Handout) Bulk flow (all components move as one unit in one direction) Run by pressure difference –F = P/R (F = Blood Flow, P = Pressure gradient; R = Resistance) –R = ( V L / r 4 )(8/3.14) (V = Viscosity; L = Length of blood vessels; r = radius) Most of the unknowns in the equation are constants except radius Therefore, Resistance to Blood Flow is mainly determined by
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2 HEART STRUCTURE 1. STRUCTURAL LAYERS: – Pericardium (sac), Epicardium, Myocardium, and Endocardium 2. FOUR CHAMBERS: – Two Atria; Two Ventricles – Septum divides heart into left and right portions – No horizontal “blood” flow – Blood flow routes; Vertical “blood” flow 3. “SKELETON”: – Used to anchor the valves firmly in place HEART STRUCTURE (Cont.) 4. VALVES:(Handout) – 2 AVs or cuspids (blood into ventricles) – 2 Arterials or semi-lunars (blood exit into aorta and pulmonary artery) – No valves by Venacava and Pulmonary veins entrances into the heart – Opening and closing depends on pressure differences and directional blood flow) – Allow blood to move into one direction only 5. MYOCARDIUM: – Branched cardiac muscle cells – Gap junctions (Quick Signal Transmission) – Desmosome junctions (strength & integrity) and Intercalated discs – Left ventricle wall thicker than right ventricle (WHY?) INNERVATION OF THE HEART 1. ANS ( Sympathetics; Parasympathetics) A. SYMPATHETICS: – Innervates atria and ventricles – Increase heart rate and contractility – Neurotransmitter (Norepinephrine) – Receptors (Beta-adrenergic) B. PARASYMPATHETIC: (Cranial Nerve X or Vagus nerve) – Mainly innervate the atria – Decrease heart rate – Little effect on ventricles and contractility – Neurotransmitter (Acetylcholine) – Receptors (Muscarinic Cholinergic) CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF HEART
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Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Notes - CARDIOVASCULAR...

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