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Unformatted text preview: PHYSIOLOGY LECTURE PHYSIOLOGY NOTES SKELETON- AXIAL SKELETONSKULL n VERTEBRAL COLUMN VERTEBRAL n HYOID BONE n RIB CAGE RIB n CRANIAL BONES OF CRANIAL SKULL (8) (8) PARIETAL n FRONTAL FRONTAL n ETHMOID ETHMOID n • cribriform plate, superior and middle concha n SPHENOID • sella turcica, pterygoid processes, foramen for optic nerve CRANIAL BONES,cont. CRANIAL n TEMPORAL • • • • zygomatic process mastoid process external auditory meatus bones of the middle and inner ear CRANIAL. BONES, cont. CRANIAL. n OCCIPITAL OCCIPITAL • foramen magnum • occipital condyles FACIAL BONES OF SKULL FACIAL ( 14) n MAXILLA • • • palatine process alveolar process infraorbital foramen FACIAL BONES OF SKULL FACIAL MANDIBLE n alveolar process alveolar n coronoid process coronoid n condyloid process ( mandibular condyloid condyles) n mental foramen mental n FACIAL BONES, cont. FACIAL ZYGOMATIC n NASAL n LACRIMAL LACRIMAL n VOMER VOMER n PALATINE PALATINE n INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA n HYOID BONE HYOID n SMALL HORSE SHOE SHAPE • DOES NOT ARTICULATE WITH ANY OTHER BONE ATTACHES TO TOP OF LARYNX n TONGUE ATTACHES TO HYOID n THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN THE general features of vertebrae n body body n spinous process spinous n transverse process transverse n vertebral foramen vertebral n laminae laminae n pedicle pedicle n superior and inferior articulating superior processes n CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7) CERVICAL n C1- ATLAS C1• no body, no spine n C2 AXIS C2 • odontoid process (dens) • all cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen THORACIC VERTEBRAE THORACIC (12) rib articulations n T-1 T-12 T-1 n LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5) LUMBAR L-1 L-5 n large body large n Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum n n fused vertebrae fused Coccyx Coccyx • 4 fused vertebrae Other features of spinal column Other Intervertebral discs n intervertebral foramina intervertebral n Spinal curvatures Spinal n • normal primary and secondary • abnormal- kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis RIB CAGE RIB STERNUM STERNUM n MANUBRIUM n BODY ( GLADIOLUS) n XIPHOID PROCESS XIPHOID n RIBS, 12 pair RIBS, n true ribs (7) • costal cartilages • attached to sternum n false ribs (5) false • 8-10 have costal cartilages • 11-12 are floating ribs • no costal cartilages Anatomy of ribs Anatomy n structures structures • • • • • head neck tubercle angle shaft APPENDICULAR APPENDICULAR SKELETON UPPER EXTREMITY n CLAVICLE CLAVICLE n • sternal and acromial ends n SCAPULA • • • • acromion process coracoid process spine glenoid cavity (fossa) UPPER EXTREMITY UPPER n HUMERUS HUMERUS • • • • • • • • head greater tubercle lesser tubercle lateral and medial epicondyle coronoid fossa olecranon fossa trochlea capitulum UPPER EXTREMITY, cont. UPPER n RADIUS RADIUS • 1. head • 2. styloid process n ULNA • coronoid process • olecranon process • semilunar notch UPPER EXTREMITY, cont. UPPER HAND n CARPALS (8) CARPALS n HAMATE n CAPATE n TRAPIZOID n PISIFORM n LUNATE n n n Hand, cont. Hand, n n METACARPALS METACARPALS PHALANGES PHALANGES • proximal • middle • distal phalanges, except thumb APPENDICULAR APPENDICULAR SKELETON LOWER LIMB LOWER n n OS COXAL(innominate bone) OS ILIUM ILIUM • greater sciatic notch ISCHIUM n PUBIS n • pubic symphysis n n ACETABULUM ACETABULUM OBTURATOR FORAMEN OBTURATOR OS COXAL OS DIFFERENCES IN MALES AND DIFFERENCES FEMALES n female- angle greater than 180 n female- pelvis diamter larger n Lower extremitly Lower FEMUR n head n neck neck n greater trochanter greater n lesser trochanter lesser n linea aspera linea n medial and lateral epicondyle medial n medial and lateral condyles medial n Lower extremitly Lower PATELLA PATELLA n TIBIA n • medial malleolus n FIBULA FIBULA • lateral malleolus Foot Foot n TARSALS (8) TARSALS • talus articulates with tibia and fibula • calcaneus: heel • • • • • • Foot Foot n n n METATARSALS METATARSALS PHALANGES PHALANGES ARCHES ARCHES • transverse • medial and lateral longitudinal ...
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