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Unformatted text preview: ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE EXAMINE the ingredients listed on a box of crackers. They may include fl our, added vitamins, sugar for sweetness, a natural or synthetic coloring agent, baking soda, salt for fl avor, and BHT as a preservative. No matter how simple or complex each of these substances is, it is composed of the basic building block, the atom. The word atom comes from the Greek word atomos meaning unable to cut. In Chapter 2, we examine the structure and properties of atoms, the building blocks that comprise all forms of matter. Both the naturally occurring diamond used in jewelry and the synthetic carbon fi bers used in high-end, lightweight bicycles are composed of the element carbon. CHAPTER OUTLINE 2.1 Elements 2.2 Structure of the Atom 2.3 Isotopes 2.4 The Periodic Table 2.5 Electronic Structure 2.6 Electronic Confi gurations 2.7 Electronic Confi gurations and the Periodic Table 2.8 Periodic Trends CHAPTER GOALS In this chapter you will learn how to: Identify an element by its symbol and classify it as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid Describe the basic parts of an atom Distinguish isotopes and calculate atomic weight Describe the basic features of the periodic table Understand the electronic structure of an atom Write an electronic confi guration for an element Relate the location of an element in the periodic table to its electronic confi guration Draw an electron-dot symbol for an atom Use the periodic table to predict the relative size and ionization energy of atoms 2 32 PROBLEM 2.1 Give the symbol for each element. a. calcium, a nutrient needed for strong teeth and bones b. radon, a radioactive gas produced in the soil c. nitrogen, the main component of the earths atmosphere d. gold, a precious metal used in coins and jewelry PROBLEM 2.2 An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements that has metallic properties. Give the element symbol for the components of each alloy: (a) brass (copper and zinc); (b) bronze (copper and tin); (c) pewter (tin, antimony, and lead). 2.1 ELEMENTS You were fi rst introduced to elements in Section 1.3. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction. Of the 114 elements currently known, 90 are naturally occurring and the remaining 24 have been prepared by scientists in the laboratory. Some elements, like oxygen in the air we breathe and aluminum in a soft drink can, are familiar to you, while others, like samarium and seaborgium, are probably not. An alphabetical list of all elements appears on the inside front cover. Each element is identifi ed by a one- or two-letter symbol. The element carbon is symbolized by the single letter C, while the element chlorine is symbolized by Cl. When two letters are used in the element symbol, the fi rst is upper case while the second is lower case. Thus, Co refers to the element cobalt, but CO is carbon monoxide, which is composed of the elements carbon (C) and oxygen (O). Table 2.1 lists common elements and their symbols.and oxygen (O)....
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course BBA 101 taught by Professor Avish during the Spring '11 term at Northern Virginia.
- Spring '11