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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 How Psychologists Do Research 1...

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Chapter 2 How Psychologists Do Research Theory: explanation of something (why?) 1. Ex. media causes teen drug use Hypothesis: a prediction based on a theory Ex. The more media teen is exposed to the more likely he/she is to use drugs Operational Definition: how what is in question will be measured -Defining a term from the hypothesis in a measurable way w EXAMPLES: Aggression: police reports; etc Need to quantify something Driving record: government keeps records Research Methods The scientific method employs different types of methods to conduct research. Each method has unique advantages and disadvantages. What method a researcher uses depends on what questions he/she is trying to answer. All research is based on systematic observation and rules of evidence Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies : describe and predict behavior
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1. 1. Case Study: detailed account of and individual being studied 1. 2. Observational Studies: 1. Naturalistic observation 2. Laboratory observation 1. 3. Tests (assessments) Standardized – uniform procedures for giving & scoring the test Norms – established standards of high/low scores Reliability – same/similar results each time Validity – is the test measuring what it intends to measure? Surveys: self–report: asking people to report on their behavior/ attitudes 1. - Widely used in psychology 2. - Gather lots of information quickly Problems with surveys: - people lie/distort/have poor self-knowledge - phrasing of questions can skew results - volunteer bias- those who volunteer to take surveys might be different from general population Population and Representative Sample Population: who you want to study (all) Representative Sample: who you actually survey must represent our population ex: Indiana teens (population), survey of 15 high schools across IN (rep sample)
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