Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Biological Processes Nature vs...

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Chapter 3: Biological Processes Nature vs. Nurture Thornedike: “in the actual race of life…the chief determining factor is heredity” Watson: “Give me a dozen healthy infants…I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select…regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities…and race of ancestors” Truth is in between, but not necessarily in the middle Nature and Nurture account for almost all human traits to one degree or another Genetics Genes: basic units of heredity 1. - coded instructions to carry out genetic characteristics Chromosomes: carry out genes Pairs of chromosomes: Dominant – Dominant = dom trait expressed Dominant – Recessive = dom trait expressed Recessive – Recessive = rec trait expressed Caution: most human traits are influenced by more than one gene Behavioral Genetics: attempts to determine how much of our behaviors is genetics vs. environment Heritability: statistical measure of hoe much a trait is inherited and how much is because of other factors Twin Studies and Adoption Studies: ways to discover heritability in humans Twin Studies Monozygotic Twins: formed from one egg and one sperm that splits (generally identical) Dizygotic Twins: formed by two separate eggs and sperm (generally like siblings)
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Adoption Studies Compare correlations of traits of the adopted children with their biological parents and their adopted parents If correlation is higher with the biological parents, it suggests heritability Height vs. Table manners Intelligence Inherited meta- analysis of twins reared both apart and together Correlation rates for Intelligence: Monozygotic twins = .86= 86% same IQ Dizygotic twins = .60= 60% same IQ
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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Biological Processes Nature vs...

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