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B Page 1 LABORATORY REPORTS, GRAPHS AND ERRORS Appendix B B 1) The Laboratory Report: 1.1) Objective: To explain clearly to your demonstrator the purpose of the experiment, how and why various methods are used, and give an explanation of the results obtained. This is an introduction to the scientiFc method. You are expected to produce a brief report at the conclusion of each lab session. Additionally once each semester you will be asked to submit a formal report. As you proceed to conducting experiments in the second and third years, the experiments become more complex, and the reports more elaborate. 1.2) Laboratory Notes: The basis of any report must be the notes and data recorded during the course of the experiment in the laboratory. These notes are for the use of the experimenter alone, and must be complete enough to be intelligible to him. The notes will contain everything that could possibly be relevant including many things which need not appear in a written report. All preliminary data or trial runs which may later be rejected should be noted here. Tables of data must of course be explained adequately and units given so that the experimenter does not have to guess at these things later on when writing a report. Diagrams of apparatus, particularly circuit diagrams, should be put in these notes. The type of equipment used for certain measurements should be noted, e.g. what sort of galvanometer, ammeter etc. was used, on what range? This kind of information is necessary if the reliability of the measurements is to be assessed. You will be required to purchase a separate notebook for such notes rather than making use of scraps of paper which all too easily become lost. 1.3) Brief Report: With the exception of the formal lab, you will be expected to submit a brief lab report at the end of each lab session. This brief report should contain the following sections: - Objective: up to 2 1ines describing what it is that the experiment demonstrates. - Theory: up to 5 lines brie±y explaining the basic concepts of the experiment. - Data Tables: each table should have a title, labelled columns of data indicating the units, and data values with the uncertainties for each value. - Graphs: where helpful, a graph representing the data (see “The Use of Graphs” below). Each graph should have a title, labelled axes with units, and error bars on the data points. - Calculations: show an example of how computed values are obtained. - Calculation of errors: show an example of how the computed errors are obtained. - Results: Show all Fnal values with their uncertainties. - Discussion: (State your result) What is the signiFcance of the results found?
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B Page 2 .Do they agree with theoretical predictions? .Is the discrepancy within the limits of reasonable error?
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