Understanding Nutrition

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Intro to Nutrition Chapter 1: pages 2-33 Nutrition : the science of foods and nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion). A broader definition includes the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating. Foods: products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues. Carelessness about food choices can contribute to many chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. *Chronic disease = progresses slowly, lasts a long time *Acute disease = develops quickly, runs a short course Diet : the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks. Food Choices Personal Preference - Main reason for choice is taste o Sweetness of sugar and savoriness of salt o Common also is high-fat foods o Hot peppers in Mexican food, curry in Indian - Genetics may influence taste perceptions - Hormones of pregnancy influence food cravings/aversions Habit - Cereal every morning, like always Ethnic Heritage of Tradition - People eat foods they grew up eating - “Typical foods” - 60% of U.S. restaurants (minus fast food) have an ethnic emphasis (Chinese, Italian, or Mexican) Social Interactions - Companionship - People eat more food when socializing - Part of hospitality Availability, Convenience, and Economy - Those who value convenience: eat out, ready-to-eat meals, delivery o Want to prepare a meal in 15-20 minutes, using few ingredients “Ingredients” are usually semi-prepared (like canned soup)
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- Meal-preparation businesses to assemble several meals for families from ingredients that have been purchased and portioned according to planned menus - Those who prepare own food eat less fast-food and are more likely to meet dietary guidelines for fat, calcium, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains - Consumer emphasis on convenience limits choices - Rising food costs o Over 80% are eating home-cooked meals at least three times a week Positive and Negative Associations - Hot dogs at ball games, cake and ice cream at birthday parties - Aversions develop to foods eaten when sick or forced to eat as a child - Happens by using foods as rewards or punishments Emotions - Some cannot eat when upset, others eat to relieve boredom or depression - Depressed may eat rather than call a friend - Foods can influence brain’s chemistry and the mind’s response o Carbohydrate and alcohol – calm o Protein and caffeine – activate - Easily leads to overeating and obesity Values - Reflect religious beliefs, political views, environmental concerns o Muslims fast during Ramadan o Vegetarians – animal rights o Boycott fruit from exploited migrant workers o Support local farmers to save fuel/environmental costs of shipping o Reusable/recyclable packages o Feelings towards the way they were grown (organic, etc) Body Weight and Image - Can be positive if based on solid knowledge
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course BIO 108 taught by Professor Bradley during the Fall '11 term at University of Massachusetts Boston.

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Nutrition Chapter 1 - Intro to Nutrition Chapter 1: pages...

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