4 Traverse

4 Traverse - CE 111 Traverse and Traverse Computations...

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CE 111 Traverse and Traverse Computations
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Traverse Traverse Series of successive straight lines that are connected together Traversing The process of measuring the lengths and directions of the lines Purpose: To locate objects or boundaries To obtain control information
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Traversing This involves the measurement of a series of distances (angle, bearing, azimuth) One of the most common measurement techniques in Geomatics
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Types of Traverses Open Checks are not available Closed Begins and ends at the same point (loop traverse) OR. .starts at a known point and ends at another endpoint Checks are available
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Types of Open Traverses I. Loop Traverse (closes on starting point) II. Link Traverse [Distance and angles Measured]
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Measuring Traverse Angles Interior/Exterior angles Angles to the right (left) Deflection angles
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Traversing Angle Computations Rules for closed with n angles: (internal angles) = (n – 2) 180 or (external angles) = (n + 2) 180 For a closed link traverse, the check is given by A 1 + (angles) – A 2 = (n – 1) 180 Where: n is the number of angles measured A 1 is the initial or starting azimuth A 2 is the closing or final azimuth
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Balancing Angles: Using this example: (n=5) (5-2)180° = 540° Observed values total to 540° 0’11” Error: 11” Adjustment: - 11” Traversing – Angle Computations
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Traversing Angle Computations Balancing the Angles: The misclosure is distributed amongst the angles. (i) arbitrary adjustment – if misclosure is small, then it may be inserted into any angle arbitrarily (usually one that may be suspect) (ii) average adjustment – misclosure is divided by number of angles and correction inserted into all of the angles. (most common technique) (iii) weighted adjustment weights are proportional to confidence in measurement
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Angle Computations Once the angles have been balanced • Use these angles to compute the azimuths of the lines in the traverse • Start with from the azimuth of the original fixed control line • Use the internal or clockwise measured angles to compute the forward azimuths of the new lines. • Check the starting azimuth.
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4 Traverse - CE 111 Traverse and Traverse Computations...

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