4 Traverse

4 Traverse - CE 111 Traverse and Traverse Computations...

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CE 111 Traverse and Traverse Computations

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Traverse Traverse Series of successive straight lines that are connected together Traversing The process of measuring the lengths and directions of the lines Purpose: To locate objects or boundaries To obtain control information
Traversing This involves the measurement of a series of distances & directions (angle, bearing, azimuth) One of the most common measurement techniques in Geomatics

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Types of Traverses Open Checks are not available Closed Begins and ends at the same point (loop traverse) OR..starts at a known point and ends at another endpoint Checks are available
Types of Open Traverses I. Loop Traverse (closes on starting point) II. Link Traverse [Distance and angles Measured]

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Measuring Traverse Angles Interior/Exterior angles Angles to the right (left) Deflection angles
Traversing Angle Computations Rules for closed with n angles: (internal angles) = (n 2) 180 or (external angles) = (n + 2) 180 For a closed link traverse, the check is given by A 1 + (angles) A 2 = (n 1) 180 Where: n is the number of angles measured A 1 is the initial or starting azimuth A 2 is the closing or final azimuth

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Balancing Angles: Using this example: (n=5) (5-2)180° = 540° Observed values total to 540° 0’11” Error: 11” Adjustment: - 11” Traversing Angle Computations
Traversing Angle Computations Balancing the Angles: The misclosure is distributed amongst the angles. (i) arbitrary adjustment if misclosure is small, then it may be inserted into any angle arbitrarily (usually one that may be suspect) (ii) average adjustment misclosure is divided by number of angles and correction inserted into all of the angles. (most common technique) (iii) weighted adjustment weights are proportional to confidence in measurement

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Traversing Angle Computations Once the angles have been balanced Use these angles to compute the azimuths of the lines in the traverse Start with from the azimuth of the original fixed control line Use the internal or clockwise measured angles to compute the forward azimuths of the new lines.
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