9 Volumes and Mass Diagrams

9 Volumes and Mass Diagrams - Computing End Area by Cross...

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Computing End Area by Cross Section: Horizontal distance (L/R) of centerline and elevation (by leveling and tape). Left Intercept Right Intercept C L 2% 22’ 0% 6’ 1 3 1 2 1 2 (NOT TO SCALE - right side of template is a mirror of left side for cross-slopes, lane and shoulder width, ditch width and depth.) 1 2 87.9 0 85.3 +35 80.0 +50 85.8 -30 86.0 -51 Elevation Distance (L/R) CL Elevation: 84.66 ft. Design Template Ground Line 3’
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Cross Section End Area by Coordinates: Area by coordinates - does this look similar to our familiar traverse problem? C L 2% 0% 6’ 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 B C D E F G H I J O Left Intercept Right Intercept 22’ 3’ 87.9 0 85.3 +35 80.0 +50 85.8 -30 86.0 -51 Point X Y X= Y= O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 E 22.00 -0.44 0.00 + 22.00 0.00 + (-0.02)*22.00 F 30.00 -4.44 22.00 + (2*4) -0.44 + -4.00 G 36.00 -4.44 30.00 + 6.00 -4.44 + 0.00 CL Elevation: 84.66 ft.
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Cross Section End Area Coordinates: Area by coordinates - does this look similar to our familiar traverse problem? C L 2% 0% 6’ 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 B C D E F G H I J O Left Intercept Right Intercept 22’ 3’ 87.9 0 85.3 +35 80.0 +50 85.8 -30 86.0 -51 Point X Y X= Y= I 0.00 3.24 0.00 0.00 + (87.9-84.66) H 35.00 0.64 0.00 + 35.00 3.24 + (85.3-87.9) Right Intercept 42.88 -3.44 (see next page) (see next page) CL Elevation: 84.66 ft.
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Slope Intercepts: Computed the coordinates of H and G Know the slope of the lines G-RI and H-RI Compute the azimuths. H G RI (right intercept) 85.3 +35 80.0 +50 1 3 (36.00, - 4.44) (35.00, 0.64) RI = (42.88, -2.15) Can inverse GH for distance and direction. Compute the coordinates of RI.
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VOLUMES
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PLANS Three kinds of views are use to show earthwork construction. Plan view Profile view Cross section view
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PLAN VIEW Is looking down on the work.
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PROFILE VIEW Proposed grade Natural ground
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Fill section Cut section CROSS SECTION VIEW
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CONTRACT DOCUMENT Construction documents present, as information available to bidders, earthwork data gathered during the design phase.
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Earthwork Analysis: Take average cross-sections along the roadway alignment (typically 100 ft. stations on rural highway projects.). Plot natural ground level and proposed grade profile and determine areas of cut and fill. Calculate volume of earthwork between cross- sections .
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SURVEYOR’S NOTATIONS Slope Foreslope Backslope 3 1 C 2.5
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The width of a roadway is fixed by project design requirements Fore slopes/back slopes are prescribed by design manuals\ Depend on soils, drainage, sight distance, design speeds, safety considerations, etc The right of way (ROW) is usually wider in cuts than on fills to provide drainage ditches. Roadway
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9 Volumes and Mass Diagrams - Computing End Area by Cross...

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