AMH Midterm IDs 1

AMH Midterm IDs 1 - AMH IDs War hawks 1807-Americans,...

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AMH IDs War hawks- 1807-Americans, mostly frontiersmen, paranoid of British causing recession after the Embargo Act and arming Native Americans on the frontier Wanted to conquer Canada Major General Isaac Brock Canadian general Tricked Hull into surrendering in Detroit Opened NW for the British o commanded all of the armed forces in Upper Canada. He was also acting as the chief administrator of the province's government because Lieutenant Govenor Francis Gore had gone to England on leave. The range of Brock's duties was immense, but he had been in Canada almost continuously since 1802 so he was familiar with the country and the people who lived there. Brock would have preferred to have been in Europe fighting against Napoleon. Early in 1812 he received permission to transfer home, but war clouds were gathering over the border and Brock believed that duty required him to stay in Canada where he was needed. o Jomini and Clausewitz- Founders of examination of warfare using rational thought Jomini used pre civil war Clausewitz- during civil war Jomini-more maneuver tactics Clausewitz- Annihilation Jomini and Clausewitz – Jomini: climactic battle, concentration of mass, control territory, decisive point, no needless bloodshed; fought with Napoleon Clausewitz: maximum violence, strategy of annihilation; goes against chivalry Jomini: o o was a general in the French and later in the Russian service o known for military strategy and how it compared to Clausewitz
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o According to the historian John Shy, Jomini "deserves the dubious title of founder of modern strategy. o Prior to the American Civil War , the translated writings of Jomini were the only works on military strategy that were taught at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Clausewitz: Prussian soldier and military theorist Served during the Napoleonic Wars, reconstructed Prussian military Argued that limited wars have the tendencies to escalate into total wars defense is the strongest form of war o “The greater and more powerful the causes of war the more likely it will escalate into total war” Gained fame for publishing three volume masterpiece on war o Discussed the necessity of violence to (ideally) totally destroy the enemy in order to achieve political gains o First to connect politics with war War is a political act, thus should be lead by politicians” o War as “an act of violence intended to compel our enemy to do our will” No impact on American military history UNTIL 1873 o Translated at West Point Saw two types of victory, depending on the goals o Limited war—limited conquest (e.g. conquest of Spanish Florida) o Total war—overthrow the enemy Nathanael Greene- Replaced Gates as commander of South Fought Cornwallis in NC, forcing him to scatter his troops to maintain control of territory Developed guerilla warfare A favorite of Washington Nathanael (Nathaniel) Greene:
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AMH Midterm IDs 1 - AMH IDs War hawks 1807-Americans,...

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