Military History Study Guide

Military History Study Guide - Military History Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Military History Study Guide Identifications Clausewitz Prussian soldier and military theorist Served during the Napoleonic Wars, reconstructed Prussian military Argued that limited wars have the tendencies to escalate into total wars defense is the strongest form of war o The greater and more powerful the causes of war the more likely it will escalate into total war Gained fame for publishing three volume masterpiece on war o Discussed the necessity of violence to (ideally) totally destroy the enemy in order to achieve political gains o First to connect politics with war War is a political act, thus should be lead by politicians o War as an act of violence intended to compel our enemy to do our will No impact on American military history UNTIL 1873 o Translated at West Point Saw two types of victory, depending on the goals o Limited warlimited conquest (e.g. conquest of Spanish Florida) o Total waroverthrow the enemy Military Strategy The art and science of employing the armed forces to secure the objectives of national policy by the use or threat of force Based on structure and strategy National Strategy the art and science of developing and using political, economic and psychological powers of a nation together with its armed forces during peace and war to achieve political goals Principles of the Offensive and Objective Objectiveintended to remind military officers that every military action should have a specific objective or contribution to the ultimate objective Offensivestrongest form of warfare; offensive action is the only means to achieve decisive results Principles of Concentration or Mass and Unity of Command Concentrationstrongest part of forces must be brought to boar on decisive objectives of war (GW) Unity of Commandthere should be one head of command Woman and War Are central to the honor complex (rather have a dead hero than a living coward) Isabella the Catholic against the Islamic Grenada Have always been involved as non combatants (nurses, factory workers, etc) WWII first women actually fighting (400,000 in the red army and the OSS as intelligence agents for the US) American Militia Tradition ( to 1809) Colonies originally organized into militias in order to fight natives because they could neither afford nor did they support a standing army Colonial military power vested in colonial assembly, delegated to governor who appointed general o Officers elected by the men (typically of higher social class) No permanent staff System reinforced the provincial system Poorly trained; not trusted in battle because when conflicts arose they scattered Service in the British Army by Americans (1755-1760) Two types of everyday duty o Garrison dutycoerced into serving past enlistment disease, stress, exhaustion o Fatigue duty/duty on expeditionmany Americans came with skills that the British didnt have, forced instead to do peasant jobs...
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Military History Study Guide - Military History Study Guide...

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