Intro to Psych Class Notes

Intro to Psych Class Notes - IntrotoPsych 14:11 K a+ N+...

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Na+ Concentration Gradient K + Concentration Gradient Intro to Psych 14:11 Measurement - Operational definition : specifies precisely how variable will be measured o moving from concepts to quantitative indicators (self esteem, compassion) o if you can operationalize  same emotion several ways, more convincing o self-esteem:  extent to which self-ratings portray positive views of her worth,  competence (10 items) “I feel that I am a person of worth.” “I feel that I have a number of good qualities.” “At times I think I am no good at all” strength: know yourself really well problem: may not be as honest about yourself as others would be solution: cross studies (ask you and others) - Good op def = VALID (most important that it is true) o Construct validity : does measure truly tap variable of interest? Compare Concept      > Self-esteem: extent to which a person values, approves of,  appreciates, prizes or likes him or herself Op. def      > (see items above) Do they share meaning? Example: reviewer saying that the study was not showing whether daily  stresses effect health, it was a face valid method of coping not  necessarily hassles o Predictive validity:  does measure correlate with other measures of same  variable?
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High correlations means all getting at same underlying meaning Does your measure predict the kind of life outcome and behaviors that  should be related o Reliability:  does measure provide same answer when same “thing” measured  multiple times? Scale that changes when measuring before/after shower o Power (sensitivity) : does measure produce different answer when different  “thing” is measured Scale measuring different people, same weight (not true) No variability – not sensitive to differences Describing the People We’ve Measured     - Frequency Distribution o Organized display of scores (ie. Histogram) by how often they happen o Normal distribution : higher frequency, more extreme is less common o o Scores tend to cluster, some deviation o Skew: one long side, drawn out in one direction - Descriptive Statistics  o Central tendency  - measure of where scores tend to cluster in center of  distribution mean median  (where 50% make more, 50% make less) exactly the same = perfect normal distribution difference between mean and median shows difference
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Intro to Psych Class Notes - IntrotoPsych 14:11 K a+ N+...

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