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02 - Engineering Materials and their Properties

02 - Engineering Materials and their Properties -...

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Engineering Materials and Their Properties Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel
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Manufacturing Processes Net shape processes • Bulk Deformation (Forging, Rolling, Extrusion, Drawing) • Sheet Metal Forming (Shearing, Bending) • Metal Casting • Polymer Processing (Injection Molding) • Powder Metallurgy Removal processes • Cutting w/ single point tools (Turning, Boring, Grooving) • Cutting w/ multiple point tools (Drilling, End Milling, Face Milling) • Abrasive Machining Processes- (Grinding) Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel • Ceramic and Glass Forming • Non-traditional Machining- (Laser cutting, EDM, etc.) Additive processes • Selective laser sintering (SLS) • Stereolithography (SLA) • 3-D Printing • Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) • Fused deposition modeling FDM) • Shape deposition modeling (SDM) Joining • Welding, Brazing, Soldering • Adhesion (Glue, Epoxy...) • Mechanical Fastening
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Engineering Materials Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel
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Mechanical Properties of Solids Most manufacturing processes include “shaping” in liquid (casting, injection molding) or solid state (forming, machining). In this class, emphasis is on solid state shaping, i.e. deformation and machining processes. Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel Knowledge of the mechanical behavior of materials in solid state is essential to understand and design forming and machining processes.
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Modes of deformation L A 0 L τ a γ A 1 A 0 , l 0 = initial cross section and length A 1 , l 1 = final cross section and length A, l = instantaneous cross section and length Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel Uniform Tensile Uniform Compression Shear L L l 0 A 0 A 1 τ l 1 l 0 l 1 b
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Engineering Stress and Strain Engineering Stress (based on original dimensions) 1 l l dl dl l - S L A = 0 load Initial Cross section ( Degree of deformation ) Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel Engineering Strain (based on original dimensions) e is positive in tension and negative in compression Engineering Shear Strain 0 0 1 0 0 0 l l e l de l = = = b a = γ
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Tensile Test Fixture Fixed Crosshead Specimen Column F Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel Base and Actuator Table Moving Crosshead F v
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Sheet Metal Tensile Test Specimen z t o w o Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel y
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Tensile Test Specimen + + A B B G W C R T L Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel G gage length 2.00+/-0.005” W width 0.500+/-0.010” T thickness material thickness R radius of fillet (min) 1/2” L overall length (min) 8” A reduced section length (min) 3” B length of grip section (min) 2”
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Tensile Test Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) ( Highest stress reached prior to fracture ) Yield Point E= σ /e Modulus of elasticity Area represents how much elastic energy material can store Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel Ductility
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Stress-strain curve for a steel specimen 1. Elastic region 2. Yielding 3. Strain Hardening 4. Necking and Failure Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. T. Özel
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Some Definitions Modulus of elasticity (E):
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