03 - Structure and Manufacturing Properties of Materials

03 - Structure and Manufacturing Properties of Materials -...

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Chapter 3 Structure and Manufacturing Properties of etals Metals Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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Turbine Blades for Jet Engines FIGURE 3.1 Turbine blades for jet engines, manufactured by three different methods: (a) conventionally cast ; (b) directionally solidified, with columnar grains , as can be seen from the vertical streaks; and (c) single crystal . Although more expensive, single crystal blades have properties at high temperatures that are superior to those to those of other blades. Source : Courtesy of United Technologies Pratt and Whitney. Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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The Crystal Structure of Metals Crystalline material: atoms situated in a repeating 3D periodic array over large atomic distances Crystalline structure : The arrangement of atoms in the crystal is called crystalline structure . Lattice: 3D array of regularly spaced points nit cell: he smallest group of atoms showing characteristic lattice Unit cell: The smallest group of atoms showing characteristic lattice structure of a particular metal is known as a unit cell. • Three basic patterns of atomic arrangement found in most metals are as pg follows: – Body-centered cubic (bcc) – Face centered cubic (FCC) – Hexagonal close packed (hcp) Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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AMORPHOUS MATERIALS atoms pack in periodic, 3D arrays Crystalline materials. .. typical of: -metals -many ceramics -some polymers rystalline SiO py Si Oxygen crystalline SiO 2 Adapted from Fig. 3.18(a), Callister 6e. atoms have no periodic packing occurs for: Noncrystalline materials. .. -complex structures -rapid cooling noncrystalline SiO 2 " Amorphous " = Noncrystalline Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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ENERGY AND PACKING Dense, regular packing Energy typical neighbor r bond length typical neighbor bond energy Non dense, random packing Energy typical neighbor bond length r typical neighbor bond energy Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel Dense, regular-packed structures tend to have lower energy
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Body-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure FIGURE 3.2a The body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure: (a) hard-ball model; (b) unit cell; and (c) single crystal with many unit cells. Source: W.G. Moffatt et al. Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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Face-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure FIGURE 3.2b The face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure: (a) hard-ball model; ) unit cell; and (c) single crystal with many unit cell. ource W.G. Moffatt et al. (b) unit cell; and (c) single crystal with many unit cell. Source : W.G. Moffatt et al. Manufacturing Processes Spring 2011 Prof. Tugrul Ozel
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Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystal Structure FIGURE 3.2c The hexagonal close- acked (hcp) crystal structure: (a) unit cell; and g p( p ) y ( ) ; (b) single crystal with many unit cells. Source : W.G. Moffatt et al.
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