13-microfabrication

13-microfabrication - CHAPTER CHAPTER 13: Microfabrication...

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HAPTER 3: CHAPTER 13: Microfabrication Processes & Nanomanufacturing Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Fabrication Sequence for tegrated Circuits Integrated Circuits • Microfabrication processes are utilized in fabrication of components and systems for microelectronics, optical networking equipment, personal computers, cellular phones, information systems, automotive control and telecommunications. • Integrated circuit (IC) technology is basically processing of silicon as semiconductor material. FIGURE 13.3 General fabrication sequence for integrated circuits. Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Semiconductor Materials • Semiconductor materials have electrical properties that lie between those of conductors and insulators. • Single crystalline silicon structure can be controlled by adding impurity atoms (dopants) either more valence atoms (n-type or negative dopant ) or fewer valence atoms (p-type or positive dopant ). • Dopants for silicon: • n-type; phosporus and arsenic • p-type; boron. • A new compound is also used in ICs; Gallium arsenide (GaAs). allium arsenide offers better apability in light emission Gallium arsenide offers better capability in light emission. Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Fabrication of Semiconductor Materials FIGURE 13.2 Cross- ectional sectional views of the fabrication of a metal oxide emiconductor se co ducto . Source : R. C. Jaeger. Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Silicon Crystal Growing and Wafer reparation Preparation • Natural form of silicon dioxide and silica • Purification of silica into 95%-98% polycrystalline silicon • Process into electronic-grade silicon (EGS) under high-temperature hydrogen atmosphere • Single-crystal silicon and added dopants with Czochralski (CZ) process • Round ingots are obtained and ground to a desired diameter (6-to-8 in. or 12 in dia). • Wafers (0.5 mm, 0.02 in thick) are sliced out of the round single crystal silicon gots ingots. • Wafers are polished and cleaned • Orientation of the crystal in a wafer ost ommonly (100) or (111) plane are used Most commonly (100) or (111) plane are used. • Once it is processed, a wafer will produce many many IC components. Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Crystallographic Structure of Silicon FIGURE 13.4 Crystallographic structure and Miller indices for silicon. (a) Construction of a diamond-type lattice from interpenetrating face-centered cubic cells (one of eight penetrating cells shown). ) he iamond pe lattice of silicon The interior atoms have been shaded (b) The diamond-type lattice of silicon. The interior atoms have been shaded darker than the surface atoms. (c) The Miller indices for a cubic lattice. Manufacturing Processes Prof. T. Özel
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Film Deposition Methods Films and films deposition methods are made in order to create mask to be used in etching processes.
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course ENG 303 taught by Professor Any during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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13-microfabrication - CHAPTER CHAPTER 13: Microfabrication...

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