driven, inflation costs(this we have done a lot), agent v. broker(done this a lot too), (doors),
channels of distribution, line of credit, any of the media things (I felt they were pretty explanatory,
but feel free to add whatever you’d like)
1) Many adaptations are discretionary; that is, firms may choose to make certain adaptations or not to do
so. In some cases, however adaptations are mandatory. They are necessary for the product to be sold in
a local market. Some mandatory adaptations are responses to differing physical realities: consumer
electronics adapted to work with different voltages, altering currents, and electric plug design. Most
mandatory adaptations are made to adhere to national legal requirements. For example, a French court
required Yahoo to block French users from accessing Nazi memorabilia on its U.S. based website,
thereby setting a precedent and suggest that web companies operation on the global Internet could be
required to conform to standards of individual countries. Some discretionary adaptations can become
mandatory. Originally Microsoft declined to translate its software into Icelandic, people were able to
manage without, but the government demanded that Microsoft translate its program, and they did to so
that they wouldn’t have to leave the market.
Benefits of product adaptation:
-Mandatory adaptations allow products to be sold in otherwise closed markets.
-Products can be sold for use in different climates and with different infrastructures.
-Product costs may be decreased by varying local inputs.
Different climatic conditions often demand a change in the package to ensure sufficient protection or shelf
life. The role a package assumes in promotion also depends on the marketing retailing structure. In
countries with a substantial degree of self-service merchandising, firms should choose a package with
strong promotional appeal for consumer products. In addition, distribution handling requirements are not
identical all over. In the high-wage countries of the developed world, products tend to be packaged in such
a way as to reduce further handling by retail employees. For consumer products, all mass merchandisers
have to do is place product on shelves. In countries with lower wages and less elaborate retailing
structures, individual orders may be filled from larger packaged orders, a process that entails extra labor
on the part of the retailer.
Specific packaging decisions that may be affected include size, shape, materials, colors, and text. Higher-