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section 1 handout_answers

section 1 handout_answers - Bio1A Spring 2011 Discussion...

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Bio1A Spring 2011 Discussion Section Handout #1 Week of January 24, 2011 Terms to Know Cohesion Adhesion Hydrogen bond Glycosidic bond Peptide bond Peptide, polypeptide, protein Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Calorie Joule Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Lipid Fat Fatty acid Saturated fatty acid Unsaturated fatty acid Water: The Biological Solvent 1) Draw three water molecules, labeling the atoms. Draw solid lines to indicate covalent bonds and dotted lines for hydrogen bonds. Add partial-charge labels as appropriate. 2) Define polarity. Explain why water is a polar molecule. Polarity means that the two ends of the molecule have opposite charges. Oxygen more electronegative than hydrogen; the electrons of the covalent bonds spend more time closer to oxygen than to hydrogen, resulting in a partial negative charge on oxygen 3) What properties of water allow for each of the following phenomena? a. The transport of water against gravity in plants Cohesive behavior – hydrogen bonds allow attraction of water molecules to each other, so that as water evaporates from a leaf, the exiting molecules pull on water molecules closer to the plant's root. Another contributor is adhesion, whereby water is attracted to non-water molecules (in this case, the cell walls of the plant).
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b. You are able to dissolve a sugar cube in your morning coffee Versatility as a solvent – due to water's polarity, it is capable of dissolving a wide variety of substances, including non-ionic compounds such as sugars. c. Bodies of water do not freeze solid during the winter Expansion of water upon freezing – hydrogen bonding results in a lattice as water freezes; in order to allow room for this lattice, water expands and ice is about 10% less dense than liquid water at 4 o C. Due to this expansion, ice floats and prevents freezing of the water below.
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