section 6 handout_answers

section 6 handout_answers - Bio1A Spring 2011 Discussion...

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Bio1A Spring 2011 Discussion Section Handout #6 Week of March 7, 2011 1) What is the advantage of having linear chromosomes for eukaryotes? The linear chromosomes can condense, making segregation at anaphase simpler. Each chromosome can independently segregate during meiosis, increasing variability within a species. 2) Differentiate between the following pairs of terms: a. Genotype and phenotype Genotype is the particular collection of genes and variants of genes in an individual, while phenotype is the outward appearance of an individual (impacted by genotype and the environment). b. Sister chromatids and nonsister chromatids Sister chromatids are duplicate copies of a chromosome that are attached to each other; nonsister chromatids are similar but not identical, since they come from different members of a homologous pair (one chromatid is from the mother and one chromatid is from the father). c. Diploid cells and haploid cells A diploid cell contains two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent, while a haploid cell contains only one set of chromosomes (n). d. N value and C value N value is the number of chromosomes per haploid set; it is a discontinuous function (integer); C value is the amount of DNA in a cell; it is a relative number (depending on which point in the cell cycle is defined as C) and a continuous function. e. Kinetochore and centromere Kinetochore is a structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere; the centromere is simply the region where the two chromatids are most closely attached. f. Locus and gene Locus is the position on a chromosome occupied by a gene, NOT the gene itself. A gene is a sequence of DNA that encodes an RNA, and is a heritable unit of function. g. Homozygous and heterozygous Homozygous is when the same allele (form of a gene) is present on both chromosomes in a homologous pair, whereas heterozygous is when different alleles of a gene are present on each chromosome in a homologous pair. 3) What would be the genetic consequences of recombination between sister chromatids? Would not contribute to genetic variation, since the sister chromatids are duplicates of each other.
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 120 taught by Professor Head-gordon during the Spring '11 term at ASU.

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section 6 handout_answers - Bio1A Spring 2011 Discussion...

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