09-03 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 5: Some eras and their creatures http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Prokaryotes Bacteria are a majority of the world's biomass! Occupy every niche from 20 miles beneath the earth's surface to 20 miles above. Some cause disease, but others are crucial to food production (e.g. cheese) and digestion In ideal conditions, can double every 20 minutes. (1,000,000x population in 5 hours). Can sense their environment and swim directionally. Characteristics of Bacteria All single celled organisms (although can grow in colonies). The least complex organisms No internal cellular structure (just a cell membrane and cytoplasm ; no nucleus). Single circular chromosome About 1500 recognized species, although this is almost certainly less than 1% of the total 1,000,000,000 in one gram of fertile soil. Unique metabolisms (e.g. nitrogen fixing)
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Bacterial taxonomy Some interesting bacteria Cyanobacteria great ecological importance in global carbon, oxygen and nitrogen cycles Quite similar to universal ancestor Spirilla Some have magnetosomes and can navigate magnetically Includes Helicobacter pylori, cause of most stomach ulcers Lithotrophs Live entirely on inorganic compounds, using H 2 for energy Enterics Like Escherichia coli, lives in the intestines of animals Eukaryotes All the plants and animals you are familiar with, and many you probably aren't Complex cellular organization Nucleic acids segregated into a nucleus Cytoplasm is structured by a cytoskeleton and contains many specialized components called organelles . Three familiar phyla are animals, green plants and fungi. The rest are single celled Eukaryotes, traditionally lumped together as protists
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Protists (or Protozoans) Traditionally (although grossly) grouped into Flagellates Amoebae Algae Parasitic Protists Lots of changes in taxonomy based in molecular analyses Now about 60 classes recognized Patterson, D. J. 1999. The diversity of eukaryotes. American Naturalist 154 (suppl.):S96-S124. Fungi:
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09-03 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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