09-24 - BIO 5099 Molecular Biology for Computer...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 [email protected] Confusion from last week: “Small” RNAs are RNAs not involved in protein production, e.g. snRNA Ribosomal rRNA is part of the machinery that produces proteins (more in a moment) First, a distinction without a difference. “Small RNA” is somewhat ambiguous term Fine to say that rRNA is not a small RNA Second, mRNA and tRNA are representations of protein itself, where rRNA is not, hence the distinction. .. Purines and Pyrimidines Pyrimidines are single dinitrogen heterocycles Purines are two fused dinitrogen heterocycles
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Back to the Ribosome Recall the Ribosome is the location of protein synthesis, where mRNA is translated . Today, we finish up by looking at tRNAs and the other molecules of the complex. tRNA function Transfer RNA (tRNA) translates individual codons to their corresponding amino acids. One end has an anti-codon which binds to the mRNA. The tRNA codon sequence is the same as the gene sequence mRNA is inverse of DNA, tRNA is inverse of mRNA RNA, so U instead of T Other end binds the appropriate amino acid. Specifically, but not too strongly (has to release it!) tRNA structure tRNA has a fixed conformation (contrast with “floppy” mRNA ) RNA secondary structure is how nucleotides in the RNA bind to other nucleotides in it RNA tertiary structure is the complete 3D conformation.
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Other parts of the Ribosome Initiation factors: Proteins which start the process of translating mRNA Elongation factors: Proteins which ensure that the translation proceeds appropriately. E.g. Peptidase, which creates the peptide bonds Termination factors: Detect STOP codons, and end the translation Example biomolecular study Ribosome is a good example of a biomolecular machine Complex components, intricately assembled Key function: the mechanism for creation of all proteins Need to understand All of its components (their structures and functions) Their interactions Energetics (which we ignored so far). Synthesis, distribution, control, degradation.
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09-24 - BIO 5099 Molecular Biology for Computer...

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