10-15 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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1 BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 15: Being a Eukaryote: From DNA to Protein, A Tour of the Eukaryotic Cell. Christiaan van Woudenberg Being A Eukaryote Basic eukaryotes have: ± Plasma membrane – cell boundary, retains cytoplasm, selective barrier. ± Cytoplasm – portion interior to the plasma membrane, fluid contents of the cell. ± Cytoskeleton – microfilaments & microtubules, holds everything in place, allows motility within cell. ± Organelles – nucleus, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, mitochondria, etc. What do they look like? Eukaryotic Cells nucleolus mitochondrion rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex
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2 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles Prokaryote vs Eukaryote +,- - Vacuoles +,- - Chloroplasts + - Mitochondria + - Golgi complex + - Endoplasmic reticulum + - Internal organelles +,- + Cell Wall 80S 70S Ribosomes + - Nucleus containing a clear membrane surrounding DNA + + Cytoplasmic membrane Euk. Prok. Structure DNA Structure Human DNA is 3 billion bp, 30,000 genes, 200,000x longer than average cell width. Wound around protein complexes called histones . Unused portions condensed into heterochromatin . Unpacked euchromatin faciliates transcription, replication. Compaction depends on cell cycle stage.
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3 Histones Protein octamer that winds up 146bp of DNA into nucleosome to give us 30 nm filament. 7:1 packing ratio on histone, 40:1 on 30 nm filament. High arginine/lysine ratios. Highly conserved across eukaryote species. DNA Domains Contain 100kbp loops, anchored to nuclear scaffold by AT-rich sequences. Chromosomes Only take their fully compact form during cell division, which we’ll discuss later. Karyotype allows us to visualize abnormalities. Daughter chromatids are
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4 Chromosomes Daughter chromatids are bound at the centromere . Kinetochore is where microtubules attach during mitosis ( more later ). Telomeres
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10-15 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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