10-24 - BIO 5099 Molecular Biology for Computer...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 17: The Quiz (and back to Eukaryotic DNA) http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 [email protected] Quiz answers Kinase: An enzyme transfers a phosphate group, removing the phosphate from a high energy molecule (e.g. ATP) and transfering it to an organic substrate. Example: phosphofructokinase irreversibly phosphorylates fructose-6-phosphate. This is the rate limiting step in glycolysis Allele One of the alternative forms of a gene. In diploid cells, there are two alleles for every gene. Alleles can be either dominant or recessive (or neither) An allele is a kind of genetic polymorphism. Example: flower color in Mendel's peas.
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tRNA Transfer RNA translates individual codons to their corresponding amino acids. One end has an anti-codon which binds to the mRNA. Other end binds the appropriate amino acid. There are different tRNAs for every codon. Example: glutamate tRNA Eukaryote An organism consisting of cells in which the genetic material is contained within a distinct nucleus. All organisms are either bacteria (prokaryotes), archaea, or eukaryotes; this division is sometimes called a kingdom. Example : All plants and animals are eukaryotes. Other defining characteristics include cytoplasm, which is structured by a cytoskeleton and contains many specialized components called organelles . Mitochondria and chloroplasts are nearly universal organelles. Hydrophobic Repelled by water Example: Lipids are all hydrophobic Cell membranes are made of a hydrophobic lipid bilayer. Some amino acids are hydrophobic. The packing of hydrophobic amino acids in the core of a globular protein is a key force in protein folding. The related process is called hydrophobic collapse.
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Glycolysis Breakdown of a hexose (6C sugar) into lactate (or, in organisms like yeast, into ethanol and CO 2 ), producing a net gain of two ATPs. Feeds pyruvate into the Krebs
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10-24 - BIO 5099 Molecular Biology for Computer...

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