11-05 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 20: Development http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu From fertilized egg to. .. All multicellular organisms start out as a single cell: a fertilized egg, or zygote . Between fertilization and birth, developing multicellular organisms are called embryos . This process of progressive change is called development . Various aspects: Differentiation : how a single cell gives rise to all the many cell types found in adult organisms Morphogenesis : how is the spatial ordering of tissues into organs and a body plan realized? Growth : how is proliferation (and cell death) regulated? How do cells know when to divide and when not to? The life cycle Although there are tremendous differences in the path of development among organisms, there is a remarkable unity in the stages of animal development, called the life cycle . Fertilization to birth is embryogenesis
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Immediately following fertilization, there is a period of very rapid cell division called cleavage . There is very little new cytoplasm made. The relatively large zygote divides into numerous, much smaller cells. The resulting ball of cells is a blastula . The cells in it are blastomeres . Gastrulation After a while, the rate of mitoses slows, and the blastomeres dramatically rearrange themselves, forming three (or sometimes two) germ layers . This is gastrolation. The layers are Endoderm, (Mesoderm) and Ectoderm . At this point cellular differentiation is well along. E.g. nervous system cells will all come from ectoderm Germ layer cell fates Cells from each germ layer have specific fates Ectoderm: Epidermis, hair, nails, etc. Brain and nervous system Mesoderm: Muscle, cardiovascular system, bones, blood, dermis, gonads, excretory systems, etc. Endoderm:
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course CSC BIO 5099 taught by Professor Prof.larryhunter during the Fall '02 term at University of Colorado Denver.

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11-05 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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