11-12 - BIO 5099 Molecular Biology for Computer...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 22: A little Neurobiology http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 [email protected] Nervous system development Part of the ectoderm differentiates into the neural plate, from which a neural tube and neural crest form Neural tube becomes brain and spinal cord Neural crest becomes peripheral nervous system (and facial cartilage and teeth!) Neurulation Neurulation is when the neural tube and neural crest form (early organogenesis). Neurulation is the end global interactions in chordate development Up until this point the number of global interactions within the embryo has been increasing. After this point, global interactions decrease, and local interactions predominate
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Neural migration Neurons migrate further and faster than other cell types. Speeds up to 40°m/hr! Follow both other cells (glia) and molecular gradients Can travel over 1m to precisely specified target Neural cells Neurons and Glia are the two major cell types that make up the nervous system Neurons transmit messages from cell to cell Sensory neurons transform stimuli (e.g. light, sound, or joint position) into messages sent to other neurons Interneurons integrate information from many cells; particular interneurons are sensitive to complex features of the world; networks of interneurons are responsible for cognition and (presumably) consciousness. Motor neurons transmit messages to muscles, controlling their action. The Neuron Neurons consist of Soma , the cell body. Axon , which sends signals on to the next cell. Each neuron has one axon; it can be very long.
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