11-14 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 23: A taste of anatomy and physiology http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 [email protected] Anatomy and Physiology Are the study of the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the systems that make up organisms Bodies of multicellular organisms are somewhat arbitrarily divided into systems, commonly listed as: Cardiovascular, Urinary, Respiratory, Digestive, Musculoskeletal, Integmuntary, Immune, Nervous, Endocrine What are they, and what do they do? Homeostasis The regulation of the internal environment to stay within the boundaries necessary for life. Nearly coequal with reproduction as “the” function of life. The function of “staying alive” Dynamic maintenance of steady state of aspects of the interstitial fluid that bathes all tissues. Regulated aspects include: Temperature pH (acid/base balance) Concentrations of glucose, oxygen, other ions, etc. Pressure & flow (mostly of blood)
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Anatomy terms Most specific body parts are named in latin Directional terms are used relative to the part: Superior – toward the head Inferior – away from the head Anterior – toward the front (of the body or part) Posterior – toward the back Medial – toward the midline Lateral – to the side (away from the midline) Proximal – closer to the torso Distal – farther away from the torso Cardiovascular system Heart: Muscular control of circulation of the blood. 2, 3 and 4 chambered hearts Blood: Plasma (liquid component) Cellular (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets) Vessels: Veins (return blood to the heart) Arteries (take blood from the heart) Capillaries (exchange among blood and intercellular fluid) The human heart Pumps blood simultaneously through two circuits Pulmonary circuit passes blood through the lungs for oxygenation. Systemic circuit distributes oxygenated blood to the body Four chambers. Left Artrium (A, receives blood from lungs) Left Ventricle (B, pumps blood to body) Right Atrium (C, receives blood from body) Right Ventrical (D, pumps blood to lungs) A B C D
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Blood Cellular elements Red blood cells: transport oxygen and H + ions White blood cells: many types; immune response Platelets: part of clotting process, insure maintenance of closed circulatory system. Plasma (liquid elements) Proteins (clotting, osmotic regulation, pH buffering, etc.) Nutrients (e.g. glucose, amino acids, cofactors) Waste products (e.g. CO 2 , NH 4 ) Hormones (circulating signaling molecules) Blood Vessels Blood interacts with interstitial fluid and cells at the capillaries. No cell is more than a few millimeters from a capillary!
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course CSC BIO 5099 taught by Professor Prof.larryhunter during the Fall '02 term at University of Colorado Denver.

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11-14 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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