11-19 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Life includes Sickness and Death Pathology is the study of mechanisms and processes of disease. Several thousand distinguishable human diseases Classified by affected organ/system or by pathological process(es) involved. Basic medical terms: Symptoms (what a patient says), signs (what a doctor detects on exam), lesion (unit of abnormality, usually anatomic), etiology (cause of a disease), pathogenesis ( how the etiologic agent causes the disease), prognosis (how the patient can reasonably expect to do). Basic Mechanisms Cellular & molecular aspects of injury & death Types of cell death Cellular response to injury Inflammation and repair Adaptation A sampling of important diseases Cancer Infection, sepsis and shock Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
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Necrosis is abnormal cell death (cf apoptosis) Proximate causes: Toxins, hypoxia (too little oxygen for cellular respiration ) Ultimate causes: Reduction in blood supply ( ischemia ), e.g. stroke Too little oxygen in the blood ( hypoxemia ) Infective agents (producing toxins), trauma, radiation, etc. Consequences: Cells swell and burst, spilling contents into interstitial fluid Strong inflammatory response, phagocytosis Necrosis in heart attack Heart attack (myocardial infarction) causes ischemic necrosis in cardiac muscle Muscle cells die (no nuclei!), infiltrate of small dark inflammatory cells ( neutrophils ) Molecular mechanisms Lack of oxygen causes: Depletion of ATP: Na/K pump fails: Na + influx, followed osmotically by water Reduced synthesis and increased degradation of phospholipids, particularly of cell membrane Increased permeability to Ca 2 + 2 - ) Mitochondrial membrane leaks calcium (irreversibility) Reperfusion injury Creation of free oxygen radicals, O 2 - , OH - , H 2 O 2 - Very reactive, damaging nearly all biomolecules. Limited detoxification capacity (e.g., superoxide dismutase)
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11-19 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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