11-21 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 25: Biotechnology http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Cancer rates in Colorado For Melanoma, CO is average Our good overall rank is largely due to low lung, colon, and breast ranks Lung Breast Colon Catching cancer? I mentioned early in the course that some cancers arise as the result of viral infections Chronic Hepatitis B infections cause ~60% of liver cancer. Infecteds have 100x increased risk. Get a HepB vaccine! Good news today about a vaccine for another one of these: human papilloma virus (HPV) Clinical trial demonstrated that the vaccine prevents the HPV infection that causes ~ 50% of cervical cancer When it becomes available (not for several years), it will apply to other strains of the virus, protecting against about 70% of cervical cancers. (Also, immunity to genital warts) Molecular Biotechnology Genetic Engineering Adding genes to organisms: recombinant DNA Removing genes (or preventing their expression): knockouts and RNAi Challenges and uncertainties in genetic engineering Pharmacology: Inventing drugs Biological molecules as generic tools Antibodies Evolving enzymes Adding Genes to Organisms Recombinant DNA is the product of combining two (or more) separate sources of DNA Usually, the insertion of a foreign gene into an organism. Human insulin in E. coli for drug production Herbicide resistance into crop plants. To be successful, a genetic engineer must Insert a coding sequence into a place in the DNA where it will be properly expressed Place the recombinant DNA into an organism so that it is taken up and reproduced along with the rest of the organism's genome. Gene Splicing Restriction endonucleases cut DNA at particular sequences, leaving sticky ends There are hundreds of different restriction enzymes Ensure the cut target and the ends of the to-be-inserted sequence are complementary. The sticky ends hybridize, and the nicked molecule is repaired by a DNA ligase. Splicing a gene into a plasmid Recall that plasmids are small, circular DNAs in bacteria, separate from the chromosome They are widely used as recombinant DNA vectors. (A vector is a way of getting foreign DNA into a cell)....
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course CSC BIO 5099 taught by Professor Prof.larryhunter during the Fall '02 term at University of Colorado Denver.

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11-21 - BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists...

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