Exam2Review - General: pKa is affected by how...

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General: pKa is affected by how electronegative the subsitutents attached are, how many of them there are, and how close they are. ***Don’t be fooled by oxygen’s high electronegativity! If it can donate electrons it will make hydrogens LESS acidic! Almost all carboxylic acid derivative reactions occur the same way. Knowing this general mechanism can be a huge help. Almost all enol/enolate reactions occure the same way. SO! You just have to be able to recognize which type of reaction is occurring. Remember that the carbonyl carbon is almost always the electrophile! This is due to the dipole created by the double bonded oxygen. Nitrogen is a great nucleophile! It can do kind of weird stuff, and generally doesn’t need an acid or base catalyst. Just look it over as it becomes important later (and thus is likely to be used on this exam) Si behaves like C. P behaves like N. S behaves like O. They can all break the octet rule though. We didn’t spend a lot of time on condensation reactions today, but they are important so look
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Exam2Review - General: pKa is affected by how...

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