28 April 2011
The urinary system is responsible for producing, storing, and excreting urine. This
cleansing of the blood of the waste products of metabolism and regulating the water, salts, and
acids in the body fluids ensure homeostasis.
Common symptoms are: nausea, loss of appetite, fever, headache and body aches,
flank or low back pain, bloody urine, edema, decreased urinary output, hypertension, and
Acute glomerulonephritis-Etiologic factors: group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus.
Chronic Glomerulonephritis- Etiologic factors: immune mechanisms, primary renal disorders
and multisystem diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.
Examples of abnormal findings in a urinalysis: gross blood, the presence of RBCs,
WBCs, renal tubular cells, and casts.
Dialysis is used for end-stage-renal disease patients. Kidney transplantation is a surgical
placement of a donor kidney into a patient with irreversible renal failure.
Nephrosis-Signs and Symptoms: bloody urine, loss of appetite, pale skin, puffiness
around eyes, swollen ankles, weight gain, lethargy/depression, pelvic pain, hypertension, tests
can reveal high levels of albumin, lipids in urine. Caused by excessive loss of protein. It may