Unformatted text preview: Chloe Nguyen
09 May 2011
1. Risk factors: Has sex without knowledge of partner’s history
Shares drug-related needles
Has sex with multiple partners
Has direct skin contact with an open wound of an infected person
2. Chlamydia is called the silent STD because it often has no symptoms.
3. The possible complications of untreated gonorrhea:
Neglecting treatment can lead to the following complications:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Blood poisoning (septicemia) Septic arthritis
4. “Ping pong” vaginitis: failure to treat both partners causes reinfection.
5. Genital herpes: the pathologic course of genital herpes is an infection of the skin of the
genital area, with ulcerations spread by direct skim-to-skin contact, causing painful genital sores
similar to cold sores.
Treatment: there is no cure but prescription drugs are available to reduce the duration
and frequency of outbreaks. These drugs include acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir.
6. Recurrent herpes has prodromal symptoms, such as tingling, itching, or burning 1 to 5
days before the lesions appear.
7. Syphilis begins with the presence of a painless but highly contagious local lesion called a
chancre on the male or female genitalia. Without early treatment during the primary stage, a
systemic, chronic disease can involve any organ or tissue.
8. Dyspareunia refers to recurrent painful or difficult sexual intercourse. The nature of the
pain (superficial or deep), the amount of pain, and the conditions under which it occurs are
significant because the possible causes are diverse for men and women.
9. Drugs contribute to male impotence: medications prescribed to treat hypertension and
depression. Other common offenders are alcohol, recreational drugs, antihistamines, and
10. Male and female infertility-possible causes:
In a man: insufficient number or motility of sperm, the presence of an STD or any
infection or blockage in the genitourinary tract is another familiar cause. Structural anomalies,
infection genetic diseases, and endocrine disorders result in sterility. The presence of a varicocele can
reduce the sperm count. Other causes are injuries that affect the blood or nerve supply, radiation
exposure, exposure to pollutants, chronic stress, and hormonal imbalances.
In a woman: STDs or other infections of the reproductive organs.
Ovulatory dysfunction or failure to ovulate.
Blocked fallopian tubes.
Congenital structural or chromosomal disorders.
Scar tissue from infection, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery.
Antisperm antibodies in the female vaginal secretions
Medications that compromise fertility
Prevention: regular physical examinations and protection of the testicles during athletics
11. Benign prostatic hyperplasia – Treatment: control of fluid intake before bedtime and
avoiding medication that may cause urinary retention, such as decongestants. Drug therapy:
tamsulosin hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, and terazosin hydrochloride, finasteride. When
symptoms are moderate a highly effective surgical treatment, transurethral resection of the
prostate (TURP) may be performed to remove the obstructive part of the prostate.
12. Epididymitis – Causes: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis are the most common
bacterial causes of epididymitis. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus are other
bacterial causes of this condition. It can result from a UTI, prostatitis, and STDs, tuberculosis,
mumps, removal of the prostate gland, trauma, and the prolonged use of an indwelling catheter.
Orchitis – Causes: infection from mumps virus or STDs.
13. Varicocele: the veins of one of the testicles become abnormally distended, causing
swelling around the testicle that expands within the scrotal sac. It affects the fertility because the
increased presence of venous blood raises the temperature within the scrotum, varicocele amy
contribute to a lower sperm count.
15. PSA is considered a marker in the screening for prostatic cancer. The most important
predictors of disease progression are TNM stage, Gleason score of the biopsy specimen, and
serum PSA level. For early stage tumors, radiation therapy and prostatectomy offer similar 10
year survival rates. Diagnosis: PSA, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, six
core tissue specimens, TNM staging system, DRE, radionuclide bone scan, abdorminal and
pelvic CT scans, the Gleason grade and IVP.
16. Testicular cancer: the first sign is a nodule or painless swelling of one testicle.
17. Female reproductive diseases – Symptoms: symptomatic vaginal discharge with/without
Lower pelvic or abdominal pain.
Pelvic symptoms, absence of menstruation, scanty menstruation, bleeding between
menses, and heavy or prolonged menstrual flow.
Fever, pain during sexual intercourse or other sexual dysfunction. 18. Primary dysmenorrhea: underlying muscular structure of the produced during the cycle.
Secondary dysmenorrheal: underlying disorder or disease condition, pelvic infections, fibroids,
endometriosis, cervical stenosis.
19. Mittelschmerz is the term applied to unilateral pain occurring in the region of an ovary
during ovulation, usually midway through the menstrual cycle.
20. Endometriosis is a chronic condition characterized by extrauterine endometrial tissue.
Complications include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic scarring, and adhesion formation.
21. PID is an infection of a woman’s pelvis. The tubes, ovaries, and surrounding tissue are
involved in the infection, which can be self-limiting or, in case of abscess formation, life
threatening. Etiology: STD, then the infection becomes multibacterial with both aerobic and
22. Leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract and
can be found in up to 40% of women before menopause.
23. Fungal infections are the most common cause of vaginitis.
24. TSS is an acute, systemic infection with Staphylococcus aureus. It is often associated
with menstruating females who use tampons.
25. Since there is great debate regarding the potential for cancer with hormone treatment, the
patient should be a part of the final decision whether to use hormones. Vaginal changes can be
managed with local estrogen products and lubricants.
26. Uterine prolapsed, cystocele, and rectocele have a common cause is the trauma from
27. Cervical cancer – risk factors: lack of regular cervical Pap smear screening, exposure to
oncogenic types of HPV. By obtaining scrapings from the cervix and cervical os and examining
them microscopically, one can detect cellular abnormalities.
28. Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy.
29. Ectopic pregnancy – causes: unknown. Pelvic adhesion, the presence of damaged
fallopian tubes, progesterone contraception, previous tubal ligation, previous pelvic infection,
prior pelvic surgery, and IUD.
30. Toxema – clinical signs: edema, blood pressure is greater than 140/90, there is greater
than 300 mg of protein in the urine.
31. Abruptio placentae – complications: fetal death may ensue and the large clot that forms
under the placenta may lead to excessive blood loss in the mother and consumption of clotting
factors leading to a coagulopathy.
Placenta previa – complications: in cases of excessive bleeding vital signs may indicate
shock, with the pulse being rapid and thread and the blood pressure falling.
32. Breast cancer – factors: increased age, female gender, hormonal, reproductive, and
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- Fall '09
- Prostate cancer, Ectopic pregnancy, Pelvic inflammatory disease, previous pelvic infection