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Chapter 12 - Chloe Nguyen Professor Bush MEDA 115 09 May...

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Unformatted text preview: Chloe Nguyen Professor Bush MEDA 115 09 May 2011 Chapter 12 1. Risk factors: Has sex without knowledge of partner’s history Shares drug-related needles Has sex with multiple partners Has direct skin contact with an open wound of an infected person 2. Chlamydia is called the silent STD because it often has no symptoms. Chlamydia called 3. The possible complications of untreated gonorrhea: Neglecting treatment can lead to the following complications: Pelvic inflammatory disease Blood poisoning (septicemia) Septic arthritis 4. “Ping pong” vaginitis: failure to treat both partners causes reinfection. “Ping vaginitis: 5. Genital herpes: the pathologic course of genital herpes is an infection of the skin of the genital area, with ulcerations spread by direct skim-to-skin contact, causing painful genital sores genital similar to cold sores. similar Treatment: there is no cure but prescription drugs are available to reduce the duration and frequency of outbreaks. These drugs include acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir. and 6. Recurrent herpes has prodromal symptoms, such as tingling, itching, or burning 1 to 5 days before the lesions appear. days 7. Syphilis begins with the presence of a painless but highly contagious local lesion called a chancre on the male or female genitalia. Without early treatment during the primary stage, a chancre systemic, chronic disease can involve any organ or tissue. systemic, 8. Dyspareunia refers to recurrent painful or difficult sexual intercourse. The nature of the pain (superficial or deep), the amount of pain, and the conditions under which it occurs are pain significant because the possible causes are diverse for men and women. significant 9. Drugs contribute to male impotence: medications prescribed to treat hypertension and depression. Other common offenders are alcohol, recreational drugs, antihistamines, and depression. diuretics. diuretics. 10. Male and female infertility-possible causes: Male In a man: insufficient number or motility of sperm, the presence of an STD or any In infection or blockage in the genitourinary tract is another familiar cause. Structural anomalies, infection genetic diseases, and endocrine disorders result in sterility. The presence of a varicocele can genetic reduce the sperm count. Other causes are injuries that affect the blood or nerve supply, radiation reduce exposure, exposure to pollutants, chronic stress, and hormonal imbalances. exposure, In a woman: STDs or other infections of the reproductive organs. Ovulatory dysfunction or failure to ovulate. Blocked fallopian tubes. Congenital structural or chromosomal disorders. Scar tissue from infection, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery. Tumors Endometriosis Antisperm antibodies in the female vaginal secretions Medications that compromise fertility Psychological distress Prevention: regular physical examinations and protection of the testicles during athletics 11. Benign prostatic hyperplasia – Treatment: control of fluid intake before bedtime and avoiding medication that may cause urinary retention, such as decongestants. Drug therapy: avoiding tamsulosin hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, and terazosin hydrochloride, finasteride. When tamsulosin symptoms are moderate a highly effective surgical treatment, transurethral resection of the symptoms prostate (TURP) may be performed to remove the obstructive part of the prostate. prostate 12. Epididymitis – Causes: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis are the most common bacterial causes of epididymitis. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus are other bacterial bacterial causes of this condition. It can result from a UTI, prostatitis, and STDs, tuberculosis, bacterial mumps, removal of the prostate gland, trauma, and the prolonged use of an indwelling catheter. mumps, Orchitis – Causes: infection from mumps virus or STDs. 13. Varicocele: the veins of one of the testicles become abnormally distended, causing swelling around the testicle that expands within the scrotal sac. It affects the fertility because the swelling increased presence of venous blood raises the temperature within the scrotum, varicocele amy increased contribute to a lower sperm count. contribute 15. PSA is considered a marker in the screening for prostatic cancer. The most important predictors of disease progression are TNM stage, Gleason score of the biopsy specimen, and predictors serum PSA level. For early stage tumors, radiation therapy and prostatectomy offer similar 10 serum year survival rates. Diagnosis: PSA, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, six year core tissue specimens, TNM staging system, DRE, radionuclide bone scan, abdorminal and core pelvic CT scans, the Gleason grade and IVP. pelvic 16. Testicular cancer: the first sign is a nodule or painless swelling of one testicle. 17. Female reproductive diseases – Symptoms: symptomatic vaginal discharge with/without odor. odor. Lower pelvic or abdominal pain. Pelvic symptoms, absence of menstruation, scanty menstruation, bleeding between menses, and heavy or prolonged menstrual flow. menses, Fever, pain during sexual intercourse or other sexual dysfunction. 18. Primary dysmenorrhea: underlying muscular structure of the produced during the cycle. 18. Secondary dysmenorrheal: underlying disorder or disease condition, pelvic infections, fibroids, Secondary endometriosis, cervical stenosis. endometriosis, 19. Mittelschmerz is the term applied to unilateral pain occurring in the region of an ovary during ovulation, usually midway through the menstrual cycle. during 20. Endometriosis is a chronic condition characterized by extrauterine endometrial tissue. Complications include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic scarring, and adhesion formation. Complications 21. PID is an infection of a woman’s pelvis. The tubes, ovaries, and surrounding tissue are involved in the infection, which can be self-limiting or, in case of abscess formation, life involved threatening. Etiology: STD, then the infection becomes multibacterial with both aerobic and threatening. anaerobic organisms. anaerobic 22. Leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract and can be found in up to 40% of women before menopause. can 23. Fungal infections are the most common cause of vaginitis. 24. TSS is an acute, systemic infection with Staphylococcus aureus. It is often associated with menstruating females who use tampons. with 25. Since there is great debate regarding the potential for cancer with hormone treatment, the patient should be a part of the final decision whether to use hormones. Vaginal changes can be patient managed with local estrogen products and lubricants. managed 26. Uterine prolapsed, cystocele, and rectocele have a common cause is the trauma from childbirth. childbirth. 27. Cervical cancer – risk factors: lack of regular cervical Pap smear screening, exposure to oncogenic types of HPV. By obtaining scrapings from the cervix and cervical os and examining oncogenic them microscopically, one can detect cellular abnormalities. them 28. Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian 29. Ectopic pregnancy – causes: unknown. Pelvic adhesion, the presence of damaged 29. fallopian tubes, progesterone contraception, previous tubal ligation, previous pelvic infection, fallopian prior pelvic surgery, and IUD. prior 30. Toxema – clinical signs: edema, blood pressure is greater than 140/90, there is greater than 300 mg of protein in the urine. than 31. Abruptio placentae – complications: fetal death may ensue and the large clot that forms under the placenta may lead to excessive blood loss in the mother and consumption of clotting under factors leading to a coagulopathy. factors Placenta previa – complications: in cases of excessive bleeding vital signs may indicate shock, with the pulse being rapid and thread and the blood pressure falling. shock, 32. Breast cancer – factors: increased age, female gender, hormonal, reproductive, and Breast genetic factors. genetic ...
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