Chapter 13 - Chloe Nguyen Professor Bush MEDA 115 12 March...

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Chloe Nguyen Professor Bush MEDA 115 12 March 2011 Chapter 13 1. The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. 2. Defects in the circulatory systems of the brain can lead to vascular disorders and damaged brain cells. 3. To evaluate the problems, patients will be asked if they have headache, dizziness, muscle weakness, etc. 4. 3 vascular disorders are: cerebral thrombosis, cerebral bleed, or cerebral embolism. 5. TIA: ministroke is caused by an embolism. Do not cause unconsciousness. CVA: real stroke. Cause unconsciousness. The symptoms last longer than 24 hours. 6. Both types of hematomas can result when blood from ruptured vessels seeps into and around the meningeal layers. Subdural hematomas often exhibit symptoms similar to those of an epidural hematoma, except that the onset is delayed because of a slower accumulation of blood. 7. A cerebral contusion is more serious than a concussion. This injury to the brain involves bruising of tissue along or just beneath the surface of the brain and may be termed a contra-coup insult. 8. Injuries to the spinal cord affect the innervations of any spinal nerves distal to the point of insult. Paraplegia is loss of nerve function below the waist and paralysis of the lower trunk and legs. Quadriplegia is loss of nerve function at the cervical region resulting in paralysis of the arms, hands, trunk, and legs. 9. The degeneration may result in pain in the areas served by spinal nerves of the involved disk space. 10. Spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal or nerve root foramen, is often termed sciatica because of the compression on the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots.
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11. Some types of headaches are not symptoms of underling disorders but are considered
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