BasicNomenclature

BasicNomenclature - Basic IUPAC Nomenclature I Straight...

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Basic IUPAC Nomenclature I Straight Chain Alkanes Straight chain alkanes have only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Formula is C x H (2x+2) All the carbons in alkanes are sp 3 hybridized and in straight chain alkanes all the carbons are linked in a straight line. (Exactly two ends) Straight chain alkanes are named for the number of carbons in the chain. All straight chain alkane names end in –ane; which shows that the only functional group present is alkanes. Basic Straight Chain Alkanes C 1 - C 10 CH 4 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CH 3 CH 4 C 1 methane C 2 ethane C 3 propane C 4 butane C 5 pentane C 6 hexane C 7 heptane C 8 octane C 9 nonane C 10 decane
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Advanced Straight Chain Alkanes C 11 – C 20 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 12 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 13 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 17 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 18 CH 3 C 11 undecane C 12 dodecane C 13 tridecane C 14 tetradecane C 15 pentadecane C 16 hexadecane C 17 heptadecane C 18 octadecane C 19 nonadecane C 20 icosane Notes: With 5 or more carbons straight chain alkanes count generally using Greek prefixes. Memorizing 1-10 is sufficient for 8A, students in 118A should know 1- 20.
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Basic IUPAC Nomenclature II Alkyl Groups You can make an alkane into an alkyl group by removing a hydrogen. Alkyl groups of straight chains are named by dropping the ending –ane and adding the ending –yl to the base name of the chain. H C H H H H C H H a methane molecule a methyl group H C H H C H C H H C H H H H H an ethane molecule an ethyl group Once we get to three or more carbons there are choices. We can form straight chain or branched alkyl groups. H C H C C H H H a propane molecule H H H H C C C H H H an isopropyl group H H H H C H C C H H a propyl group H H H a straight chain or n-alkyl substituent a branched chain substituent Many smaller branched alkyl groups get common names. These names are old fashioned, but are still often used. The following common names are in general use and should be remembered. isopropyl H C C C H H H H H H X the iso- prefix is included in alphabetization isobutyl H C C C C H H H H H the iso- prefix is included in alphabetization H H H X sec- butyl H C C C H H H H H the sec - prefix is italicized and separate from the name and is NOT included in alphabetization. C H H H X tert- butyl C C C C H H H the tert - prefix is italicized and separate from the name and is NOT included in alphabetization. H H H H H H X
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Branched alkyl groups can also be named by IUPAC by treating each branch as a substituent off the main chain. When naming branched alkyl groups using IUPAC the carbon attached to the point of interest (e.g. main chain) is carbon one. isopropyl
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BasicNomenclature - Basic IUPAC Nomenclature I Straight...

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