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Lecture 16 - Real batteries. Kirchhoff s rules

# Lecture 16 - Real batteries. Kirchhoff s rules - ACT Mixed...

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1 Lecture 16 Real batteries Real batteries. Kirchhoff’s rules. DC instruments. ACT: Mixed circuit Three identical bulbs are connected to an ideal battery as shown below. When the switch is closed, bulb 1 is __________ and bulb 2 is _________. 1 A. dimmer, dimmer B. dimmer, the same C. brighter, dimmer 2 3 V 0 1 2 3 Resistance here decreases I 1 V 0 Current I 1 increases Bulb 1 is brighter Total resistance decreases V 2 (= V 0 I 1 R ) decreases Bulb 2 is dimmer Real batteries Batteries have wires and other parts with a certain resistance r (= internal resistance) Model of a non-ideal battery A B ε r ε = EMF (electromotive force) = voltage produced by the chemical reaction (or by whatever the battery is made of)

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2 Real vs ideal batteries Ideal battery A B ε r Constant voltage output V A – V B = ε Real battery ( r > 0) ( r = 0) i.e., on the circuit Voltage output depends on the current V A – V B = ε – Ir And… power dissipation inside the battery Example: Circuit with real battery a. What do the voltmeter and the ammeter read when the switch is open?
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