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Unformatted text preview: - Monophyletic: Group consisting of ancestors and all descendants- Paraphyletic: Group consisting of ancestor and most descendants Molecular CLocks- Molecular Clocks: Technique used to relate molecular differences between two lineages to their absolute time since divergence. Assumes constant mutation rate Phylogenies: What are they good for?- They reveal changes not captured in the fossil record- Example: Evolution of brain morphology and tool use- Address Biologically Interesting Hypothesis- Identify Illegal Activity- Transmission of HIV to Humans- Transmission of HIV between Humans- Spread of Bird Flu- Phylogenies and West Nile Virus Summary- Synapomorphy vs. plesiomorphy- Outgroups vs. ingroups- Three main types of phylogenetic trees- The rule of parsimony- Homoplasy can mislead phylogenetic reconstruction- Molecular clocks- The utility of phylogenetic reconstruction-...
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