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Psych Midterm Chap 1-3

Psych Midterm Chap 1-3 - Psych Midterm 1 Study Chapter 1...

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Psych Midterm 1 Study Chapter 1 Psychology - the scientific study of mind and behavior Mind - Private inner experience Behavior - observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals - The brain often has many mental lapses in judgement, “bugs/quirks” Philosophical empiricism - all knowledge is acquired through experience (Aristotle) Nativism - certain kinds of knowledge are innately ingrained (Plato) -Descartes brought up the problem of dualism (mental activity associated with physical behavior) Phrenology - specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are in specific parts of the brain (Franz Gall) Physiology - the study of biological processes especially in the human body Stimulus sensory input from the environment Reaction Time - the amount of time it takes to react to a specific stimulus -Wundt taught the first course in Psych, developed Structuralism Consciousness - A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind Structuralism- the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind Introspection - the subjective observation of one's own experiences Functionalism - the study of mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment Natural Selection Charles Darwin's theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than the other features on to subsequent generations Illusions - Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality Gestalt Psychology - A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather the sum of the parts Dissociative Identity - A condition that involves the occurrence of two or more distinct identities within the same individual Hysteria - A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences Unconscious- the part of the mind that operates outside of the conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings and actions Psychoanalytic Theory - Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes Psychoanalysis - A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness Humanistic Psychology - An approach understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of humans Behaviorism - An approach that advocates psychologists restrict themselves to the object study of observable behavior (watson) Response- An action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus Reinforcement - The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again. Pioneered by Skinner Cognitive Psych - the scientific study of mental processes including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning Behavioral Neuroscience - links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Cognitive Neuroscience
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