POL 001 - POL 001 Final Review Conditional party government...

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POL 001 Final Review Conditional party government - the degree of authority delegated to and exercised by congressional party leaders varies with the extent of election-driven ideological consensus among members; in short congressional party leaders have more power when members of their party are in agreement on an issue Gerrymandering - drawing legislative districts in a way that gives one party a disproportionately large share of seats for the share of votes its candidates win Necessary and proper clause – clause in Article I of the Constitution granting Congress the authority to make all laws that are “necessary and proper” and to execute those laws; ex: under this clause Congress banned discrimination in public accommodations and housing in the 1960’s Pork barrel legislation – legislation that provides members of Congress with federal projects and programs for their individual districts often used to bring money to their district Closed rule – an order from the House Rules Committee limiting floor debate on a particular bill and disallowing or limiting amendment; ex: Majority party leaders use closed rules to keep unwanted amendments off the agenda Conference committee - a temporary joint committee of the House and Senate appointed to reconcile the differences between the two chambers on a particular piece of legislation; ex: about a year ago the Recovery and Investment Act, also known as the stimulus bill, required one of these joint committees to restructure the bill so that both House and Senate would agree Filibuster – holding the floor making endless speeches so that no action can be taken on a bill or anything else; used to try and kill bills that that the majority would otherwise enact; ex: notoriously used in the past by conservative southern senators to kill civil rights laws Proportional representation – an electoral system in which legislative seats are given to candidates or parties in proportion to the percentage of votes received; used in many European democracies but US has always been a winner-take-all affairs Rider – an amendment to a bill that is not pertinent to the bill, extraneous proposals; often used to pass a controversial provision that would not pass on its own Unanimous consent agreement – a unanimous resolution in the Senate restricting debate and limiting amendments to bills on the floor Presidential coattails – a metaphor for the capacity of a successful presidential candidate to generate votes for other candidates further down the ticket pulling fellow partisans into office
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Executive order – a presidential directive to an executive agency establishing new policies or indicating how an existing policy is to be carried out; ex: presidents have signed executive orders shifting hundreds of thousands of employees from political patronage positions into the civil service system Going public – when a president engages in intensive public relations to promote their policies to voters inducing cooperation from other elected officeholders in Washington;
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course POL 001 taught by Professor Huckfeldt during the Winter '08 term at UC Davis.

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POL 001 - POL 001 Final Review Conditional party government...

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