HYPERTHYROIDISM .docx - Complex midterm#1 \u2013 THYROID DISORDERS What is the thyroid gland a gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate

HYPERTHYROIDISM .docx - Complex midterm#1 – THYROID...

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Complex midterm #1 – THYROID DISORDERS What is the thyroid gland? a gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth and development through the rate of metabolism. The thyroid gland produces two hormones: T3 and T4 and they are partially composed of iodine. HYPERTHYROIDISM – TOO MUCH thyroid hormones!!! Excessive secretion of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland leading to increased basal metabolic rate, cardiovascular function, GI function, neuromuscular function, weight loss and heat intolerance, thyroid hormone affects metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins Prevalence rate of 2-3 per 1000 women Added: Thyroid normally regulates metabolic rate, temperature control, Everything is sped up (hyper) = higher, = heart rate is higher, body temp is higher (cant handle heat) ETIOLOGY + PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones Graves’ disease (Common Form) Toxic nodular goiters – enlargement of thyroid due to low iodine Pituitary tumours Thyroid Cancer Thyroiditis Excessive dose of supplemental thyroid hormone
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GRAVES DISEASE Autoimmune disease of unknown etiology Diffuse thyroid enlargement and excessive thyroid hormone secretion Etiology: Insufficient iodine supply, infections, stressful life events interacting with genetic factors. Graves’ disease accounts for 75% of cases Antibodies are developed to the TSH receptor May progress to destruction of thyroid tissue Diagnostics: elevated serum T3, T4 and free T4 decreased TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), Positive RAI uptake scan, thyroid scan. Added: Wheres TSH come from? petuitary gland. Why someone with hyperthyroid have decreased TSH? Negative feedback. If there T3 and T4 are high it tells it not to produce TSH. RAI radioactive iodine uptake scan. Graves disease = thyroid becomes enlarged, might cause pressure and eyes pushed out. Could go from happy sad very sad in two seconds ASSESSMENT Exophthalmos Impaired drainage from orbit, increasing fat and edema in retroorbital tissues Eyeballs forced outward and protrude
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