C_Unit_2_States_of_Matter_20112012_L

C_Unit_2_States_of_Matter_20112012_L - Unit 2 States of...

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Unit 2: States of Matter Unit 2: States of Matter Chapters 13 & 14 Chemistry 1L Cypress Creek High School
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Pre-Test Pre-Test 1. What is the temperature in K of 25 o C? 2. What are the four states of matter? 3. What is energy? 4. What is the law of conservation of energy? 5. Define STP. 6. The density of O 2 is 1.43 g/L at 1atm and 0 o C. Find the density at 50°C.
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Energy Energy Energy is the ability to do work Energy manifests itself in a variety of forms
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Law of Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy The law of conservation of energy states that in any process, energy can be converted from one form to another, but it is neither created nor destroyed.
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Potential Energy Potential Energy Potential energy is energy due to the composition or position of an object. PE = mgh Example: water stored behind a dam above the turbines of a hydroelectric generating plant.
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Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is energy of motion. The potential energy of the dammed water is converted to kinetic energy as the dam gates are opened and the water flows out. KE = ½ mv 2 Chemical systems contain both kinetic energy and potential energy.
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Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic energy increases with temperature Particles move faster and farther apart Applies to all states of matter Ex: concrete expanding on highways
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Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory KMT explains the behavior at a particle level - kinetic means ‘motion’ There are several principles to KMT: 1) Particles are in constant, random motion 2) Particles do not attract or repel each other 3) Particles have elastic collisions , meaning they do not loose kinetic energy when they collide 4) Kinetic energy depends on temperature
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Solids and KMT Solids and KMT According to KMT , solid particles have as much energy as liquid & gas particles at the same temperature. For a substance to be a solid rather than a liquid, there must be strong attractive forces limiting the movement of the particles. Definite shape and volume Particles vibrate around fixed points Crystalline or amorphous structure
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Liquids and KMT Liquids and KMT KMT predicts the constant motion of the liquid particles.
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