Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - John Malloy PHL105H Final Study Guide 1 Why is the cogito(I think the fi rst certainty according to D escartes Descartes

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John Malloy PHL105H – Final Study Guide 1. Why is the cogito (‘I think’) the first certainty according to Descartes? Descartes decides that in order to discover something that is certain, he will cast everything into doubt. He first tries to persuade himself that nothing exists, but then realizes that if he was able to persuade himself of this, then he must exist in order to be persuaded. Similarly, he considers the existence of a supremely sly deceiver, who is deceiving him, but again realizes that in order to be deceived, he must exist. 2. How does Descartes establish the distinction between mind and body? Descartes makes the discovery that thought exists and that it cannot be separated from him. Therefore, he claims that he is nothing more than a thinking thing: a mind, intellect, or understanding. The body, however, is simply an object that is moved by external forces. 3. How does Hume establish that we do not have an ‘immutable self’? If we are defined by our impressions, then we are ever-changing.
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course PHL 105 taught by Professor Frances during the Spring '11 term at Miami University.

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Final Study Guide - John Malloy PHL105H Final Study Guide 1 Why is the cogito(I think the fi rst certainty according to D escartes Descartes

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