Ch5 intro to psy.docx - Ch5 Concepts Labels that represent a class or group of objects people events sharing common characteristics or attributes

Ch5 intro to psy.docx - Ch5 Concepts Labels that represent...

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Ch5 Concepts Labels that represent a class or group of objects, people, events, sharing common characteristics or attributes. Prototype: Example that embodies most common feature of particular concept. Decision making Systematic decision making Examining all possible alternatives. Choose most beneficial Elimination by aspects Eliminate alternatives that do not match each factor Heuristics Availability heuristic Probability of event corresponds to ease which event comes to mind Representativeness heuristic Based on new situation resembling familiar one. Recognition heuristic Decisions terminate as soon as factor moving to the decision is recognized. Factors: Framing : information emphasizes potential gain or loss. Intuition : gut feelings or instincts Anchoring : focusing on single factor magnifies importance of factor relevant to other factors Problem solving: Trial and error: try on solution after another Heuristic and algorithms: Analogy heuristic: comparing problem to others from past. Working backwards: starting with a solution and working backward through the problem Algorithm 运算法则 : systematic, step-by-step procedure guarantees solution to problem of certain type if executed properly. issues Functional fixedness: failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems. A Mental rut in solving problems. Continue using same old method even if another approach is better. The nature of intelligence: Charles spearman observed that people bright in one area are usually bright in other areas.
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  • Spring '14
  • Intelligence quotient, Peter Salovey

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