Lecture 6.ppt - Questionnaire Design Lecture 6 Same question different interpretations \u201cshould Asians dye their hair blonde?\u201d may be a moral

Lecture 6.ppt - Questionnaire Design Lecture 6 Same...

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Questionnaire Questionnaire Design Design Lecture 6
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Same question, different interpretations: “should Asians dye their hair blonde?” may be a moral question for people in lower class, but a political one for those in the higher class; All questions have political forces/institutional funding behind them; Motivations of the researcher and respondents are rarely the same; Meaning of “sensitive” (or social desirability ) questions can be very different for researchers and across different people. Here, we worry about systematic error because people could refuse to answer or lie. And those who refuse/lie may be systematically different from others; Respondents are never to blame (even when they lie or do other “bad” things). The task of researchers is to analyze and understand respondents and, through their responses, researchers themselves.
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Members of the public are equally capable of producing and expressing the questions (Some people are more competent and have more knowledge than others); Opinions expressed in a survey are true ones (the opinions are expected to be different in a bar conversation: the ought-be gap); The value of responses by different people is equal (opinion leaders/influentials vs. opinion followers); The questions raised are worth asking (always in favor of the raiser); Refusal rate/no replies is random error and not worth studying (conceals various systematic errors)
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Demographics: the “quartet” Control variables Attitude/beliefs/values Knowledge Opinion Perception Affect Emotion variables Behavior (real, intended, imagined) Cognition variables Behavior variables
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1. Question order & response order 2. Question style 3. Question wording 4. Question balance 5. “No opinion” & “I don’t know” 6. Social desirability 7. Intrusive questions
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Two kinds of questions: General vs. specific. “Are you interested in politics?” (General) “Are you interested in the Trump-Clinton election?” (Specific) When two questions are asked in sequence, they have the following relationships: a. Both questions are general or specific. b. One of the two questions is general, the other specific.
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Two types of effects: Consistency : respondents are under pressure to give answers in the same direction. Q1. “Do you enjoy talking politics with friends?” Q2. “Do your friends enjoy talking politics with you?” Contrast : respondents are under pressure to give answers in the opposite direction. Q1. “Do you like nutritious/health food?” Q2. “Do you like delicious/unhealthy food?” Specific- specific Specific- general Consistenc y Contrast A C B D
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Soviet & American reporter experiment (Hyman & Sheatsley, 1950) asked two randomly selected groups of people the following questions, in different orders. In one group the “US” question was asked first and in the other group, the “Russia” question was asked first.
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