CERAMICS AND ITS PROPERTIES V2.pptx - CERAMICS AND ITS...

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CERAMICS AND ITS PROPERTIES ACIERTO, BELINO, BETER, BOBIER, CLAMAR, CONTRERAS
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INTRODUCTION The term ceramic comes from the Greek word keramikos , which means burnt stuf ”. This indicates that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process called firing .
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HISTORY In 24000 BC, archaeologists found uncovered human-made ceramics in the form of animal and human figurines, slabs, and balls in Czechoslovakia .
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HISTORY In 8000 BC, Glass was believed to be discovered in Egypt when overheating of kilns produced a colored glaze on the pottery.
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HISTORY In the second half of the 19th century, when ceramic materials for electrical insulation were developed.
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CERAMICS Ceramics are inorganic crystalline materials compounded by either a metal and non-metal, or a combination of at least two nonmetallic elemental solids hardened by heating to high temperature.
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CRYSTAL STRUCTURES IN CERAMICS Ceramics possess these types of crystal structures according to the amount of Cations and Anions : AX Type Type Type where: A – Cations, X – Anions
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AX TYPE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE This is a type of crystal structure in which the number of cations and the number of anions are equal . Types of crystal structures for AX Compounds: Rock Salt structure Cesium Chloride structure Zinc Blende structure
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AX TYPE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ROCK SALT STRUCTURE The crystal structure of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) CESIUM CHLORIDE STRUCTURE Note: This is not a BCC structure due to the involvement of two different kinds of ions. The unit cell of Cesium Chloride (CsCl)
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AX TYPE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ZINC BLENDE STRUCTURE The unit cell of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS). Zinc Blende is the mineralogical term for ZnS.
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TYPE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE A compound can exist with the chemical formula if the charges on the cations and anions are not the same . Note: m – subscript of cation A p – subscript of anion X The crystal structure of Calcium Fluorite (Ca).
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TYPE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE These are ceramic compounds that have more than one type of cation ; for two types of cations (represented by A and B). where: B – Second cation n – subscript of cation B The unit cell of perovskite.
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SILICATE CERAMICS Silicates are materials composed primarily of silicon and oxygen , the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. Quartz Feldspar Pyroxene
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SILICATE CERAMICS Silica or Silicon dioxide (Si) is the most simple silicate material. It is a colorless white chemical compound. Some uses of silica are absorbing moisture, keeping things dry, filler for paints, and water filtration.
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SILICATE CERAMICS Vitreous Silica or Fused Silica is a kind of silica that has a characteristic of a liquid that made to exist as a non-crystalline solid or glass having a high degree of atomic randomness .
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